In this academic paper from the Boston University School of Law, the authors show that patent trolls have cost defendants — mostly large technology companies who invest heavily in R&D — $500 billion from 1990 through 2010, and over the last 4 years, the cost has averaged $80 billion per year. Moreover, very little of this money ever makes it to the actual inventors, meaning that the money lost by defendants doesn’t incentivize other inventors. In short, software patents (for most of this behavior surrounds them) are simply a drag on innovation and real progress. follow link
Extract Directly from Time Machine
Normally you use Time Machine to restore lost data in a file like this: within the Time Machine interface, you go back to the time the file was not yet messed up, and you restore it to replace the file you have now.
You can also elect to keep both, but the restored file takes the name and place of the current one. So, if you have made changes since the backup took place that you would like to keep, they are lost, or you have to mess around a bit to merge changes, rename files, and trash the unwanted one.
As an alternative, you can browse the Time Machine backup volume directly in the Finder like any normal disk, navigate through the chronological backup hierarchy, and find the file which contains the lost content.
Once you've found it, you can open it and the current version of the file side-by-side, and copy information from Time Machine's version of the file into the current one, without losing any content you put in it since the backup was made.
The Real Cost of Patent Trolls (PDF)
Once upon a time I was the main R&D researcher for a compiler company. Pre SW-patents: Everything I did was considered a trade secret, and went unpublished (with a 15-year NDA).
Post SW-patents: either "Apply for a patent, and then publish" (unusual: patents are expensive for a small company) or "Publish fast, so nobody else can patent it out from under us."
Hence, software patents suddenly changed the equation from "everything is secret" to "every advance becomes public, either as part of a patent or as a defense against someone else's patent." Multiply this effect by lots of researchers industry wide.
As always in economics: consider that which is NOT seen as well as that which is seen.