How to Know Your iPod Model
If you have an old iPod but aren't sure exactly which model it is, check the info at the Web page linked below. You'll find lots of photos and information that will help you determine exactly which model you have.
Visit Identifying iPod Models
As the iPhone and other devices keep us connected to the Internet in more locations, are we opening ourselves up to malicious data attacks? Glenn Fleishman explains sidejacking, a potentially damaging weakness in the way Web traffic is handled, and why the easiest solution is the least likely to be utilized. Also in this issue, Adam appears with a look at Teleport, a utility that lets him share two machines easily, along with a revised version of the TidBITS AutoCorrect Dictionary for use with Typinator. And how do you get six tons of uninterruptible power supply into a top-floor data center? Glenn points to the top-down solution employed by our Internet host digital.forest. We round out this issue with news of the releases of Microsoft Office 2004 11.3.7, iPhone 1.0.2, iMovie 7.0.1, and iWeb 2.0.1.
by Jeff Carlson
The next TidBITS issue will arrive on 10-Sep-07, due to the Labor Day holiday in the United States.Show full article
Next Monday is the Labor Day holiday in the United States, which is celebrated as a three-day weekend. We won't be publishing an issue that day, though that doesn't mean we're laboring any less. We'll be taking this opportunity to work on the TidBITS infrastructure, and of course we'll continue to post news and other articles of interest to the TidBITS Web site. Our next issue will arrive the following Monday, September 10th. See you then!
by Jeff Carlson
Apple has released iPhone 1.0.2, iMovie 7.0.1, and iWeb 2.0.1 to fix bugs and address issues with publishing .Mac Web galleries.Show full article
Apple recently updated the iPhone and two iLife '08 applications, fixing mostly unspecified bugs. iPhone 1.0.2 offers no details as to what's changed other than "bug fixes" and, like all iPhone updates, is available only through iTunes. iMovie 7.0.1, available both via Software Update and as a standalone download, not only offers unknown fixes, but also solves an issue with publishing movies to .Mac Web galleries; the updater is a 9 MB download. Speaking of publishing Web sites, iWeb 2.0.1 (a 12 MB download) tackles problems when upgrading and publishing sites created using iWeb 1.x.
by Jeff Carlson
AT&T finally sees the light about sending fully itemized paper bills to iPhone customers; everyone will now receive summarized paper bills unless they desperately need to help with global deforestation.Show full article
iPhone owners last week received a bit of good news from provider AT&T via text message: "AT&T free msg: We are simplifying your paper bill, removing itemized detail. To view all detail go to att.com/mywireless. Still need full paper bill? Call 611."
Last week, Jorg Brown wrote about AT&T's insane itemization of data charges, which has resulted in huge paper statements (see "iPhone Billing and International Issues," 2007-08-20). The situation garnered widespread press attention after a woman created a video on YouTube showing off the 300-page bill she received (which cost AT&T $10 to mail).
AT&T's solution as of last week was to point out that iPhone owners could opt to receive electronic statements. Apparently, reality set in, and now the full print bill is an optional item.
It turns out the programming language Erlang has been around for about 20 years, making it almost old enough to drink. Alcohol would definitely enhance the Erlang video experience.Show full article
Thanks to our friend Ned Holbrook for the correction of the week. In "C4 Conference Rethinks MacHack" (2007-08-20), I described Erlang as a "new" language, but it turns out that, although it was released as open source in 1998 and has seen more interest recently, Erlang was first used within Ericsson around 1987, making it about 20 years old. "And," as Ned said, "if you enjoyed this correction, you might also enjoy 'Erlang: The Movie'." Don't miss the martial arts "Erlang Quan: Basic Applications" movie that YouTube thinks is related. Now if only the audio for the former could be synced to the video of the latter...
Microsoft Office 2004 for Mac has been updated yet again to block potential security issues.Show full article
Just a month after releasing a security update to Microsoft Office 2004 (see "Microsoft Office 2004 11.3.6 Addresses Security Issues," 2007-07-16), Microsoft has done it again, releasing Microsoft Office 2004 for Mac 11.3.7 Update. The 8.5 MB update, which you can also install directly from within the Microsoft AutoUpdate utility, reportedly fixes a vulnerability that an attacker could use "to overwrite the contents of your computer's memory with malicious code." The 11.3.7 update requires that you have already updated to 11.3.6, which in turn requires 11.3.5. Just use the Microsoft AutoUpdate utility, which does all the heavy lifting for you.
Win a copy of Nisus Software's powerful word processor Nisus Writer Pro in our latest DealBITS drawing!Show full article
When Apple made the huge leap from Mac OS 9 to Mac OS X, many well-loved applications were left behind, generally because the effort of rewriting extremely old code was simply too great. The last application for which I kept Classic running was Nisus Software's Nisus Writer, in which I had written macros that were a key part of the TidBITS production process. We have an entirely different system now, but it has been great to see Nisus's persistence in bringing back the powerful Nisus Writer Pro with its attribute sensitive searching, macros, glossaries, tables of contents, indexing, bookmarks, widow and orphan control, line numbering, multi-lingual text support, character and paragraph styles, non-contiguous selection, and more. We've seen plenty of small word processors in Mac OS X so far, but nothing aside from Word that was aiming at a professional feature set, and it's great to see the choice of serious word processors in the Mac world expanding.
The free Teleport utility enables you to control multiple networked Macs from a single keyboard and mouse. It's very cool, and worth using for anyone who wants to use multiple Macs at the same time.Show full article
Life has been hectic of late, with lots of guests, the C4 conference in Chicago, Tonya and Tristan off on vacation, and oodles of things to do. I realized I was going to have trouble finding time to ready my MacBook for a trip (basically a matter of copying my Eudora folder over so I can read email on the laptop rather than my desktop Mac), so I did it a few days before leaving. And since I've gotten back, I've been sufficiently busy - and I've had a few instances where I needed to use the MacBook away from the house - that I haven't yet moved my email back to my G5. (And yes, I know that using IMAP to pick up mail could eliminate the need to move my Eudora folder around; with the amount of stored email I have and the importance email plays in my life, I've never been comfortable attempting a switch away from POP.)
Normally, I find working on two computers awkward, since email remains by far my primary means of communication with the outside world, but I generally prefer to write, use the Web, and test software on the G5, with its two 17-inch screens. Moving files and clipboard data back and forth is awkward at best with file sharing and remote control software, and using separate keyboards and pointing devices interrupts my flow of thought. But during the last few weeks, I've been relying on a tremendously clever and useful piece of freeware that solves all of these problems in a simple and elegant fashion.
Teleport, written by Julien Robert of Abyssoft, enables multiple Macs to share a single keyboard and mouse over a network. I have my MacBook on the desk in front of my G5's keyboard, with the G5's screens above it on a shelf. When I want to move the cursor from the G5 to the MacBook, I hold down the Control key and throw the cursor to the bottom of the G5's main screen. With no delay (even over Wi-Fi), Teleport transfers control of the MacBook to my G5's keyboard and pointing device (the Contour Designs RollerMouse Pro), showing the cursor appearing from the top of the MacBook's screen. Every mouse action and keystroke from the G5's keyboard and RollerMouse is from then on aimed at the MacBook, and not at the G5. While controlling the MacBook, a translucent display on the G5's main screen indicates that the MacBook is in control. To point the keyboard and mouse back at the G5, I hold down Control and throw the cursor to the top of the MacBook's screen, such that the cursor pops out from the bottom of the G5's main monitor.
Teleport's interface is minimal, just a menu bar icon for quick sharing and deactivation, and a pane in System Preferences that enables you to set the virtual layout of your Macs' monitors; set trusted hosts (since you don't want just anyone controlling your Macs remotely); and a variety of options related to switching among Macs, transferring files and clipboard data, and more.
That's right, Teleport can also transfer files (just drag the file as you move the cursor to the other machine) and an optional setting automatically transfers clipboard data along with the cursor. So, if I'm sent an attachment in email, but I want to put it on my G5, I just Control-drag it to the top of the screen and drop it on the G5's Desktop. Similarly, if I need to move some text from Eudora on the MacBook to BBEdit on the G5, I just copy, transfer the cursor, and paste - it's seamless.
Other interesting features include the capability to encrypt the entire data stream, the capability to wake sleeping Macs when you try to control them, keyboard modifier control of when the clipboard contents are transferred, and more.
In heavy use over the last few weeks, I've noticed a few problems with Teleport. Figuring out the most convenient virtual screen setup took some time, and although I initially wanted to avoid relying on a modifier key to switch screens, I ran into usage difficulties with every side I tried. Even now, when controlling the MacBook, if I click on the topmost pixel of the menu bar when trying to access a menu, something causes the current window to lose focus and the menu doesn't drop. (Julien tells me this is a known problem related to having drag & drop of files enabled.) Once or twice, Teleport stopped responding while I was controlling the MacBook, and I had to put the MacBook to sleep to restore control to the G5; after waking the MacBook up, I was able to control it properly again. Although the contents of the clipboard do transfer from one Mac to another, I suspect that some clipboard metadata that identifies what sort of data is in the clipboard is ignored, since pasting styled text from one machine to another sometimes results in odd behavior. This may be related to the fact that I'm moving data between a PowerPC-based Mac and an Intel-based Mac; I'll be testing a new version to confirm that soon. These problems are little more than occasional annoyances, though, and haven't posed significant trouble.
Although Julien publishes Teleport under the Abyssoft name, he's been working at Apple for the last three and a half years, and while that may have slowed his work on Teleport, it has by no means stopped it, and Julien is working on a Leopard-compatible version right now. In sum, Teleport works today with Panther and Tiger, it's free, and it's extremely useful for anyone who wants to work quickly among multiple Macs. It's a 523K download.
Our long-time co-location facility, Digital Forest - the folks that house our servers and provide juice, cooling, and connectivity - needed to add additional capacity for their power backup. Even though the large new units would slide through the building, it was unclear whether certain paths along the way were engineered to handle that much point weight. Why not rip open the roof, instead?Show full article
Lest you think that the Internet is solely a medium of light beams and electricity, this illustrated tale should remind you that the Internet is full of heavy machinery (and electricity), too.
Our long-time co-location facility, digital.forest - the folks that house our servers and provide juice, cooling, and connectivity - needed to add additional capacity for their power backup. I'm used to seeing uninterruptible power supplies (UPSes) that are the size of a shoebox or a little larger. They contain batteries or sometimes flywheels that feed out power as needed.
UPSes are part of the conditioning process in making sure that power is nice and clean, too, with spikes and drops shaved off. The largest one I ever owned could supply about 1,400 watts, running a set of servers for tens of minutes in the event of a power drop or outage; it weighed maybe 40 or 50 pounds. (Backing up the UPS units at digital.forest is a diesel generator the size of several tanks that takes over before the battery power runs out.)
digital.forest's new multi-unit UPS system weighs a total of 11,500 pounds, or nearly six standard tons, and can provide 180,000 watts of power. That size and weight prompted the company's staff first to construct a wood-frame model to make sure they had clearance within their data center. Then, in consultation with their building's owners, one of the world's largest data center builders, the technicians decided that even though the units could slide through the building, it was unclear whether certain paths along the way were engineered to handle that much point weight.
Why not rip open the roof, instead? (That's what the Apple Store thieves thought in a nearby part of Seattle recently, too.) To quote They Might Be Giants, "They'll need a crane, they'll need a crane." Some peeling off of the roof, a new cap, a couple forklifts, and a crane, and the UPSes settled into place.
It's easy to forget that the Internet relies heavily not just on ethereal bits of data, but also on loads of atoms.
The addition of the 2,300-word TidBITS AutoCorrect Dictionary makes Typinator even more useful for correcting typos and misspellings.Show full article
[Updated on 21 March 2013 to note that no extra download is required now that the TidBITS AutoCorrect Dictionary is built into current versions of Typinator, and to update the discount text. -Adam]
When Ergonis Software released Typinator 2.0 with the capability to correct typos on the fly and import text files of errors and their corrections (see "Typinator Turns Two," 2007-06-11), I immediately thought of the TidBITS AutoCorrect Dictionary, a huge public domain list of misspelled words and their correct variants that we made available for Eudora users who wanted to take advantage of Eudora's hidden auto-correction feature (see "An ATypoKill Eudora Hack," 2000-09-04). That dictionary, created largely by Micah Alpern, has made my email messages significantly faster and easier to write, since I'm the sort who corrects mistakes in messages. For others who are less retentive, it undoubtedly ensures that messages are more correctly written.
I immediately grabbed a copy of the TidBITS AutoCorrect Dictionary, made sure it was in a format that Typinator could import, and brought it in. It appeared to import correctly, and Typinator immediately started correcting more typos in all of my applications, but things weren't quite right. It turns out that Typinator has some per-word settings that govern how the expansion takes place. In particular, Typinator can modify the case of the replacement based on the case of the mistake, but the default that was set for my imported words was incorrect for most of them. Figuring Ergonis would have some magic tools that could fix things up quickly, I sent the word list to Christoph Reichenberger, asking if he could reset all the words quickly and noting that because we and Micah intentionally placed the TidBITS AutoCorrect Dictionary in the public domain, Ergonis - like anyone else - was welcome to publish the fixed list.
Needless to say, Christoph jumped at the chance to add over 2,300 more typos and their corrections to Typinator, and a few days later, I had my Typinator-formatted word list back. I've been using it ever since, and I can say with some assurance that I would sorely miss Typinator's assistance now that I have auto-correction capabilities in every application I use. There's a flash and a sound as Typinator fixes a misspelling, making it extremely clear just how often my fingers slip on the keys.
If you're using Typinator, then, I
strongly encourage you to download the free TidBITS AutoCorrect Dictionary for Typinator hope you enjoy the addition of the TidBITS AutoCorrect Dictionary to Typinator's Predefined Extras. And if you're not currently using Typinator, Christoph created a special discount for TidBITS members to thank us for allowing Ergonis to distribute the dictionary. If you join the TidBITS membership program, you can save 25 percent off Typinator's usual price of 24.99 euros.
"Sidejacking" has entered the lexicon of network attacks. This newly defined term refers to a method of hijacking an in-progress Web session with a remote service - like Gmail - by intercepting and re-using the credentials that identify you to that server. Protecting against sidejacking may take a rethink on the part of Web site operators, users, and browser makers.Show full article
"Sidejacking" has entered the lexicon of network attacks. This newly defined term refers to a method of hijacking an in-progress Web session with a remote service - like Gmail - by intercepting and re-using the credentials that identify you to that server. A sidejacker can read and send email from your Gmail account, update MySpace pages, and potentially steal your identity and make your friends and colleagues think you're evil, insane, or criminal. And that's just for starters.
These credentials can be grabbed without using encryption cracking tools, and often can be intercepted and used even if you logged into a site in a secure manner. Sidejacking doesn't require that a cracker gain remote access to your computer, nor does having session information sidejacked necessarily make your computer more vulnerable. Protecting against sidejacking may take a rethink on the part of Web site operators, users, and browser makers.
Robert Graham, one of the principals of Errata Security, presented his research at the Black Hat security conference early this month and released a proof-of-concept program shortly thereafter called Hamster. He earned kudos by showing sidejacking using live sessions within the room, rather than just a canned demo, showing how he could take control of a Gmail session, and send email from the person's account stating, "I like sheep." (Errata's other principal is David Maynor, by the way.)
Sidejacking is the jimmy that slides into the small gap between a browser and a server, enabling a cracker to pop the lock. He can't necessarily steal your Internet car, but he can grab the registration without leaving a mark.
Graham's presentation didn't reveal anything about this kind of man-in-the-middle attack that hadn't been talked about before, but he showed the scope of it and provided tools to automate the process. He moved it from a known problem, the severity of which wasn't appreciated, to a serious liability that needs to be addressed urgently.
State Your Name and Password -- Sidejacking works because there's a disconnect between the level of security on most Web-based services (other than banking and truly high-security services) applied to the step in which you provide authentication information - usually a login name or account coupled with a password - and to the session that follows while you're logged in.
This typically isn't an issue on a home network, in which the risk of interception is low or none, and the odds of data being captured between your computer and remote servers by parties other than governments is vanishingly low. The use of public Wi-Fi networks, especially with handheld devices like the iPhone, vastly increases the odds that someone could be monitoring your transmissions over open Wi-Fi networks.
Many webmail and other services require or allow you to log in over an SSL/TLS (Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security) protected session. SSL/TLS describes a neat dance that ensures you have an encrypted connection between your browser and the server on the other end. (For more about how SSL/TLS works, read Chris Pepper's exhaustive "Securing Communications with SSL/TLS: A High-Level Overview," 2007-06-25.)
Not all services require an encrypted login, but I strongly recommend that you attempt to use such logins exclusively. You can tell whether a login uses SSL/TLS or not by checking for two characteristics: the URL for the location starts with https rather than http, and a lock icon appears. Some sites include locks in their site design, often near log-in windows or in navigation bars. Those don't mean diddly. If a proper SSL/TLS connection is established, your browser shows a lock icon outside the page area. In Safari, you find the lock in the upper right corner of the window (it's subtle); in Firefox, it's in both the Location field (on the right but within the field) and in the lower right corner of the window.
(Some sites that offer secured logins foolishly present a regular Web page on which you enter data; when you click the login button, the data is sent to a secure page. This makes the login susceptible to hijacking at Wi-Fi hotspots, too, by giving crackers a chance to present a fake login page. Multiple techniques allow a ne'er-do-well to set up a fake hotspot or poison information on an actual hotspot in such a way that they fake the appearance of common banking and ecommerce sites. You can't fake a secured site without a browser prompting you with a warning about a certificate problem, but if you present a fake unsecured page, you can redirect a user to a real login on the secured side while capturing their credentials in the process.)
Here's the tricky part, and why sidejacking works. Once you have proven yourself to the service, and it has pulled up your account details, what happens next? If you're not using a banking or other site that secures the entire session with SSL/TLS, you may be dumped back into an unsecured Web session. It's all about tokens.
Prove Yourself with Tokens -- The Web is, by its nature, stateless. That means that there's no inherent connection from one action to the next as you click through links on a given Web site. Cookies provide a sense of state, enabling a Web site to request that your browser store bits and pieces of information that identify you on each subsequent page view, whether in quick succession or separated by days. Site developers can also require a special kind of Web password that can retain state, too, although it's little used, and I'll explain why in a moment.
What typically happens when you log into a Web site is the following sequence:
- You visit a secure site or are redirected to a secure login page. (A lock icon appears in the browser window.)
- You enter your user name or email address and a password. A limited number of sites may also then request additional information to confirm your identity.
- The Web site's software confirms your identity (if you entered your information correctly), and generates a token, a sequence of text, that's stored in a database associated with the site.
- The Web server sends you the token in a cookie, which your browser accepts. (If you don't accept these tokens, you are unlikely to be able to use most Web sites that require maintaining state. A very small number of sites - including Amazon.com in its early years - rewrite every link on a Web page to include a token so that cookie-refusing browsers can still use the site.)
- On subsequent page requests, your browser sends the cookie containing the token, which enables the server to retrieve the state of your connection and provide the right details on pages you're viewing.
After a predetermined period of time, often as little as 30 minutes without activity such as viewing additional pages, the token expires. The Web server may have set the cookie to expire, meaning your browser will delete the cookie on your next visit to the Web site rather than transmitting it; or the server may delete the token from its own database, and reject the one provided by your browser. Or both.
The token can be combined with an IP address to prevent random attempts to generate tokens, although tokens are usually long enough that trillions or quadrillions of possibilities are available.
Since that token is passed in the clear and used consistently throughout a session over a period of time, that leads to sidejacking's modus operandi: replaying (re-using) the same authentication information that a legitimate party uses.
Tokens Lead to Cracks in the Process -- What Graham demonstrated is that these tokens aren't bound up with any specific information about the browser - nor can they be. If you intercept the tokens over an open Wi-Fi link, even a paid Wi-Fi network or one with security that has shared users you don't know, you can replay those tokens in a fashion expected by the service, and create a fully valid session at a Web site.
The reason tokens can't be associated with a given browser or user is that there's no real binding between cookies, information stored in them, the browser, and its environment. It's no use to check whether the cookie came from a certain IP address, because many service providers bind up all outgoing requests through proxy servers or single IP addresses. Browser characteristics - the "user-agent" string - can be faked easily. It's possible that future browsers and servers could include the capability of offering some form of encrypted cookies in unsecured sessions. This binding could rely on SSL/TLS as well, but instead of encrypting an entire session, would protect only the cookies. It would reduce computational load while improving security. Browsers and servers would both require updates to make this happen, and I'm unaware of any such initiative.
To see how hard it is to sidejack a session, I fired up Ferret and Hamster, the two software packages Graham used; Ferret has been out for a while. Using a virtual Windows XP machine under Parallels Desktop, I started capturing data with Ferret. I visited Gmail and some other sites. Then I turned to Hamster, which acts as a Web proxy to present you with captured information. You can also simply enter the Web address for a site for which tokens have been grabbed, and Hamster inserts them as cookies. I logged into my own account at Gmail quite easily via this means.
Running Ferret and Hamster requires a little bit of Windows command-line knowledge, and a small understanding of how cookies and proxies work. Graham didn't intend for these to be polished applications, just workable examples of how easy it is to automate this process.
The weakness here is that the plain bit of text is sent in the clear if not protected by SSL/TLS. So why don't sites just use SSL/TLS or other means to keep you safe? Let's answer that.
Server Load and User Experience Lead to Less Security -- In a draft of this article, I posed the question: Why don't Web sites that rely on tokens just use SSL/TLS for all pages to protect them? Google's Gmail, for instance, offers this as an option. Instead of typing in gmail.com and being redirected to http://mail.google.com/mail/, you can type in https://mail.google.com/mail/ and have a secure experience throughout. Gmail is the exception, though, and doesn't even offer this option by default.
As we often do here at TidBITS, I circulated the draft among a group of experienced Macintosh writers, professionals, and information technology experts, asking them specifically - why isn't there more SSL/TLS? The answer, quite simply, is cost.
Having run secure servers myself, I knew there was an additional load in terms of bandwidth (encryption adds bits for handshaking and other details), latency (encrypted and decrypting adds time on both ends of the link), and computational load (encryption burns processor cycles).
What I didn't know is that the cost isn't, say, 20 percent or 50 percent higher, but could be 1,000 percent higher or more when you are running Web sites of any scale. For a smaller operation, like TidBITS, we might see a tiny incremental cost, or our secured pages might load slightly slower than unsecured ones for the average user.
Once you reach a level where you have tens of thousands or even millions of visitors an hour, however, the scale tends to explode, our colleagues said. Because the number of SSL/TLS transactions per second that a given server can handle is much lower than the number of unsecured transactions - perhaps as few as one-fifth as many! - a moderately busy firm will need to increase the number of its customer-facing servers dramatically to provide the same response time and handle the same number of users.
Typically, the SSL/TLS servers face the customer, and then relay requests for information over plain Web connections within the local network. That, of course, adds complexity, with many different secure servers asking internal servers for information.
A company can, alternatively, add specialized encryption hardware to their servers, speeding up SSL/TLS handling and reducing additional server needs, but that adds more cost and complexity per box, and more points of failure. It might also require more expensive servers if the current boxes lack enough open card slots for the encryption cards.
Either method increases power consumption, and thus operating expenses. And increasing complexity means things are more likely to break, and break for reasons that cannot be reduced to the component parts of failure.
SSL/TLS is also a kind of blunt instrument. If you're not already protecting your behavior and data on open networks, you probably don't care too much about someone seeing the contents of what you're reading or browsing. But you don't want to have your identity stolen or accounts misused. Isn't there a way that doesn't involve SSL/TLS's complexity and cost, but still protects tokens? Yes. And you'll laugh when you find out why it's not being used.
The Method That Works Best Is Avoided -- As I mentioned earlier, there's a special kind of Web password that can be sent in a secure fashion and can maintain state like a token passed via a cookie. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the standard that defines how Web browsers and servers request and exchange data. HTTP authentication lets a server request a user name and password for entry. There are both basic (unsecured) and "digest" (secured) methods of HTTP authentication. (Digest refers to a form of encryption that lets a sender confirm to a recipient that they both share the same password without revealing that password.)
With digest authentication, both the Web server and browser can pass the user's identity without the encrypted messages used to define identity being valuable when sniffed. In a well-designed implementation - not all of them are - the browser and server increment a shared number with each request passed so that previous digests can't be replayed by a sniffer storing and later using the digest equivalent of a token.
Now this combines the best of both worlds, right? So why isn't it widely used? Because the presentation of a login dialog box is so darned awful. You've probably encountered an HTTP authentication dialog when you've visited a site that you didn't have access to by accident, or didn't know you needed a password to use. The dialog pops up with some limited information, such as a little text that describes the site you're visiting. It asks for a user name and password, and some browsers offer to store credentials for a subsequent visit.
There's no way to modify the appearance of that dialog box. And any failure to enter the information correctly results in the box appearing again each time you click OK. If you click Cancel, an error page - which can be customized - appears.
Now, it's more or less too late. Unless every browser suddenly supported Web page-based HTTP digest authentication, no site could count on this as a method to log in. So we're stuck with the current system. Let's look at the risks, and then some alternative solutions.
Risks of Sidejacking -- The risks from having a session sidejacked can be quite high. With access to your primary email via a webmail account, a sidejacker could go to various sites that you use and state that he has "forgotten your password." Foolish sites then send your password in email to re-enter, putting it into the hands of the miscreant. Smart sites instead send an email message with a Web link for you to follow to provide additional confirmation details that validate your ability to retrieve the password or set a new one. (You may have noticed that most banking and many ecommerce sites have asked you to provide additional information for this purpose in the last year. It's not a coincidence.)
Smart ecommerce sites won't allow you to change your shipping address or retrieve a stored credit card number without authenticating again, so you're okay there. For instance, Amazon.com requires a new, secured login session whenever you check out, and once re-authenticated, the session is entirely protected by SSL/TLS, hiding the details from local sniffers.
Sidejacking can't extract an Amazon.com password, so it doesn't allow a malefactor to have items shipped to his address at your expense. He could, however, have stuff sent to you via the 1-Click ordering feature. Once logged into 1-Click on a given browser, you stay logged in and require no additional authentication. Amazon warns, in a remote help page, that you shouldn't leave 1-Click enabled after using a "public terminal" (how quaint) to place an order. But sidejacking may cause Amazon to rethink 1-Click's implementation.
Amazon never sends your credit card number back to you in a secured or unsecured session, by the way. Other sites' protections vary widely, but no site accepting credit cards should ever pass the number back. I recall an incident during the brief time I worked at Amazon.com in late 1996 when a well-known technology executive and regular Amazon customer complained that if he entered his credit card incorrectly, he was forced to re-enter it entirely on the subsequent page. Jeff Bezos was adamant that this wasn't a bug - rather, it was a feature. He and the rest of management were far ahead of the curve in worrying about in-transit theft of card numbers.
Sites with less clever developers and managers will be easier for crackers to burst open using the sidejacking wedge. Graham and others have suggested that with the wide use of social networking sites like MySpace, a sidejacker could distribute a viral load to a large audience by having a tool that automated grabbing MySpace tokens, retrieving existing pages, and re-uploading those pages with attacks built in.
Your likelihood of being sidejacked depends entirely on location. If no one ever runs sidejacking software while you're using Wi-Fi in a public location, or if you seldom use public Wi-Fi hotspots, your data (and your identity) are in little danger. But with automated tools and some benefit - identity theft or virus spreading via email - your likelihood shoots way up. Any popular hotspot could become the site of a sidejacking. Adam Engst's take on this from several years ago in "Evaluating Wireless Security Needs: The Three L's" (2004-04-05), is still a good study.
- Avoidance. Don't use any Web sites that don't offer full SSL/TLS security or that require a login while you're at a Wi-Fi hotspot or using any untrusted network also used by other unknown users.
- Use a virtual private network (VPN). A VPN can encrypt all the data entering and leaving your machine, which prevents any local sniffer from gaining anything of utility, including tokens. Several services offer VPN "rentals," where you pay a monthly or yearly fee to have a tunnel from your computer to their servers, out in a network operation center far away from the network you're using. A couple of services are particularly Mac-friendly: WiTopia.net's personalVPN ($39.99 per year for an SSL/TLS VPN) and publicVPN ($5.95 per month or $59.95 per year for an L2TP/IPsec VPN).
- Secure browsing, email, and other services through port forwarding. Secure-Tunnel is the only firm I can find that offers secure proxying and relaying that enables you to tunnel from your computer to secure servers without requiring a VPN. While VPNs generally work reliably, Secure-Tunnel's approach - which uses SSH port forwarding - may be more appropriate for some users. (Gold level service required: $7.95 per month or $79.95 per year.)
Protecting Web Sites from the Sidejacker -- How could a Web site alter its behavior to help protect its users from sidejacking? The Web site could require SSL/TLS for all connections. As noted above, this could be expensive, but it's extremely secure. Many systems that involve payment and account management - such as our partner, eSellerate, which handles Take Control book ordering and payment - choose to encrypt everything.
More realistically, a site could chain tokens and monitor for attempts to capture and reuse tokens. Here are my ideas about this, which I'll be implementing in all future designs that maintain state through tokens.
First, a server could chain tokens by providing and updating a new token each time a user requests a page. Tokens could persist only as long as it takes for the newer token to be used. Thus a time-limited token might last for a few pages, but as soon as a new token is generated, the old one expires, significantly reducing the chance of your session being sidejacked. Encouraging a logout to delete a token at the end of a session is a good idea, too. Unless the sidejacker is following your session and constantly changing his token, he'll be locked out. This adds some additional computational load on database servers, but nothing exceptional. It is essentially a poor man's version of HTTP digest authentication, but it could work.
Second, when a token is used by what appears to be a different browser or when expired tokens are consistently used, a user in an active session could be warned. "Hey," you tell them the next time they load a page. "It looks to us like someone is trying to hijack your session. Are you on a public network? You may want to log out now, and resume your session later. In the meantime, here is some security reading." This could result in false positives, but it's one potential strategy.
Ultimately, the Web is still an open means of exchanging data. Unless you use encryption as a means to reinforce identity, identity becomes something that's easily stolen.
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