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If you or anyone you know has ever felt hand or wrist pain while at the Mac, read on for more information on carpal tunnel syndrome and a number of easy ways of avoiding serious damage. We also have a look at a hot new product coming soon from SuperMac. Called SuperView, it will extend the PowerBooks' video output horizons significantly. Finally, we unveil our corporate sponsorship program, so check out the fileserver for some excellent files.


Copyright 1992 Adam & Tonya Engst. Details at end of issue.
Automated info: <>. Comments: <>

This issue of TidBITS sponsored in part by:

For detailed information on these companies and their products, please send email to <>.


Two minor mistakes last week, and one major problem this week, which accounts for the tardiness of this issue. First, we mentioned the existence of the Frequently Asked Questions file at Unfortunately, the source had transposed two letters in the filename, and so did we. Look for "csmf-faq.txt".

Secondly, Andy Sheppard told us about an FTP and archie site in the UK, adding that it had mailserver capabilities though he didn't know the details. Unfortunately, it turns out this site is available only from the UK. I believe the address is <>.

The previous paragraph is vague because our dearly-beloved 105 MB hard drive died a terrible death Tuesday when some moron got drunk and ran his car into an electric pole. The resulting power flutter (off-on-off in the space of a few seconds) turned the hard drive's controller card into the functional equivalent of a twisted heap of smoking metal. We had decent backups, but I lost all my mail and some recent work. By the time you read this, we'll be back up on another APS 105 MB drive ($270 cheaper than two years ago).

TidBITS Sponsorship Program

People often ask me, "How can you possibly afford to put out TidBITS for free?" The answer is "Not that easily." However, we believe that the individual should not have to pay for quality information. This deranged view probably stems from being related to people who work in libraries (Hi Mom!) and from an academic background in which information is shared, not sold.

As a result, TidBITS has always been and will always remain free to the individual end user, and non-profit, non-commercial publications can reprint articles freely. We encourage liberal redistribution to public online services, and we're kind to animals and small children. :-)

Enough with the white hat speech - you all know what TidBITS is about. Having grown up in upstate New York, we subscribe, more or less, to the American capitalist imperialist dream of owning our own house and maybe annexing a small country or two someday. We're awfully good at living within our means, but those means don't extend far. Therein was hatched the idea of a corporate sponsorship program modeled after the one used by Public Broadcasting.

But who to ask and how to set it all up? PBS has sponsors from every industry, although I've noticed that large oil companies fund a lot of the big name programs. (motto: "We sponsor good television. Ignore that oil slick.") The Federal Communications Commission restricts PBS sponsors to the dictum "Identify, not promote," and they must abide by numerous strict regulations.

This sounded like a good idea, but we added our own twists. First, we are only interested in working with good companies. Fly-by-night outfits can hang with the bats. Second, we realized this could be an excellent way of providing more useful information to the nets, straight from the people who know the best. To that end we have added files to our fileserver at <> from our sponsors. The concept behind these files is that they are supposed to be useful (technical support information), interesting (company background or research on a particular topic), or otherwise worthwhile. We will not post any files that we believe to be false, fraudulent, defamatory, or illegal.

We're sure that many of you will have comments and questions on this change, and please feel free to send them along. We'll respond as best we can, as we always do, but let us assure you up front that we believe this is the best move for TidBITS. Our editorial policies and biases (yes, we've all got them, no use denying it) will not change; our distribution and reprinting policies will not change; and the actual issues will only change by a few lines. The fileserver will have more files, and I certainly expect those files to be good reading, but if you don't want to see them, no one will force you to.

That said, I strongly encourage you to send email to <> to get a listing of the new sponsorship files if you want to know more about AutoDoubler or DiskDoubler or if you want to find out more about chord keyboards and Infogrip's BAT. Feel free to send email to either of the companies directly, asking for more information, or if you approve of them sponsoring TidBITS, I'm sure they'd be happy to hear that too. I know we would. :-) Of course, if your company is interested in becoming a sponsor, drop us a line and we'll talk it over.

By the way, we've ensured that all the files on the fileserver are small enough to pass through all the gateways, so those of you on CompuServe, America Online, and AppleLink can request files without fear of them bouncing or being truncated.

Thanks for all the enthusiasm, suggestions, and the hundreds of compliments you have sent us over the past two and half years. We certainly hope that you will have reason to continue sending such letters in the future.

Sincerely, Adam & Tonya Engst


We've heard of an interesting product, called SuperView, in the works from SuperMac's wizards. They've come up with a video adapter for the PowerBooks that connects a PowerBook to almost anything that can display a picture short of a Nintendo GameBoy. The adapter is housed in an external case with a built-in, international AC-input power supply, and it connects to the PowerBook via the external SCSI port.

SuperView will have three output jacks, a standard Mac DB-15 RGB connector for normal Macintosh monitors, a standard VGA connector for PC monitors, and most interestingly, an RCA connector with composite NTSC (we're talking basic TV here) or PAL (European basic TV) for the European version. The RCA jack will be suitable for use with a VCR, projection TV, hotel TV, etc., as long as the TV or VCR uses a Video-In RCA jack for input, but it won't work with those icky RF modulator boxes from Radio Shack that never provide a decent picture.

Thinking back to our Pong days, we wondered if SuperView could provide acceptable picture quality on TV sets. Apparently SuperMac is working on some software that will attempt to compensate for the limited picture quality. This limitation goes back to the fact that TV sets draw interlaced pictures, so the electron gun draws every other line, then goes back and draws the missing lines. Since we all listened to our mothers as children and don't sit too close to the TV screen, we seldom notice the interlacing. In rigorous computer use, though, it would be eye-achingly obvious. Apparently some presentation graphics programs also know how to adjust images for the best appearance on NTSC or PAL, which will also help the quality a bit.

Even with SuperMac's tweaking, we doubt that you'd want to use a TV as a monitor for long. That's not the point, though, because SuperView supports all standard Mac and VGA monitor resolutions up to 1024 x 768 at up to 75 Hz (fast and flicker-free) refresh rates. You can drive any monitor in 1-bit (monochrome) or 8-bit color mode, with the exception of the Apple 15" Portrait Display, which apparently has some technical quirks that limit it to 1-bit mode with SuperView.

There are two main ways to use a second monitor on a computer. The Mac generally uses the extended desktop mode, which seriously increases productivity by giving you both monitors to use at once (both screens are active and you simply drag the mouse between them). The second method, presentation mode, duplicates the picture on both screens, which is useless for normal work (unless you have two heads) but ideal for presentations, in which you want to see the projected image on both screens. Initially, SuperView will only support the extended desktop display mode, but presentation mode will come along a little later.

It's too early to guess at prices or shipping dates, but if you travel frequently with your PowerBook, SuperView might be well worth looking into for expanding your display horizons.

Information from:

Carpal Tunnel Anonymous

Hi. My name is Adam and I have carpal tunnel syndrome. It's a bit hard to talk about at first, especially for us guys because carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is not a real guy injury. Guys break bones parachuting from hang gliders onto oil rigs and the like. Guys do not get pains in their hands, wrists, and arms from typing a little too much while sitting in a bad chair.

Well, yes they do. So do women. Face it, if you are reading this on a computer then you may be at risk for CTS or some other repetitive strain injury. Perhaps the hardest part of dealing with these injuries is admitting that you have them. Tonya has a related problem, tendinitis, in her wrists, and after she admitted publicly at work that she couldn't do as much as she'd like, a number of colleagues came over individually and said that they too had occasional wrist pain. And this is from people who talk on the phone six hours a day (using headsets).

The first thing to do is to immediately send this issue to anyone you know who might be suffering from CTS or a related injury. I mean it. The State of Washington Department of Labor estimates that symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome will develop in 10% of all employed adults in Washington sometime during their employment careers. Surveys of doctors suggest that these sort of injuries are now the major occupational hazard of the Information Age.

It's also expensive, for you or your insurance company, if you don't treat it immediately. A study by the American Physical Therapy Association claims that a mild case of CTS can cost between $5,000 and $10,000 in medical care and lost work time, and a serious case that requires surgery on both hands can cost $100,000. If you have bad furniture at work that hurts your wrists, statistics like the one above can help convince even the stingiest employer to replace it. After all, your employer will be paying the worker's compensation and a good bit of your health insurance premiums.

I'm not going to explain CTS in detail because that's best explained by a book on the subject or an unusual doctor with time to talk. The basic idea is that several tendons and the median nerve pass through the carpal tunnel, formed by three bones and some tough cartilage, in the forearm and wrist. When you repeatedly bend the wrist at bad angles, you irritate those tendons and the nerve. Irritation leads to inflammation, which in turn leads to more irritation since the carpal tunnel doesn't have much extra room and the inflamed tendons rub on each other and on the nerve. We're talking about vicious cycles.

CTS manifests itself in pain from the thumb and next three fingers (another nerve serves the little finger) all the way up to the elbow. We've found that overcompensation and stress can also cause pain in the shoulder, neck, and back, and it might even cause migraine headaches if you're unlucky. The pain can range from minor itching and stiffness (that's how bad I've got it) to flaming shots of white-hot pain searing up and down the fingers whenever you move them. Buttoning a shirt becomes impossible and sleep may as well. What can you do? Read on.

Carpal Tunnel Help

I'm not a doctor, but I've seen one and have researched this subject, searching for more information on ways of avoiding CTS and curing it once it has happened. If you believe that you have CTS, please go see a doctor right away, or at least after reading what I've written below. I concentrate on the easy things you can do, in part because they're cheap and easy, and in part because I feel that they are in the long run more effective than the drastic invasive measures that a doctor may recommend as a last ditch effort. Do note that the measures listed below are not in any specific order because I think they're all important, and none conflict with each other, unless you go under the knife.

Ergonomics -- The first thing you should do to prevent or treat CTS is to make sure that your computer environment is well-set up, ergonomically speaking. The basic principle involves right angles. Your feet should rest flat on the floor, your calves should be perpendicular to the floor and to your thighs, which should be parallel to the floor, and the angle between your thighs and back should be at least 90 degrees. Your arms should hang relaxed at your sides, and your forearms should project out straight in front of you, forming another 90 degree angle. Your wrists should be straight, not arched upward. You might adjust your keyboard for this, or you might have to adjust your chair and desk height. Standard typing height is supposedly 27 inches, but that will vary with your height. I had to saw an inch or so off my desk and buy an adjustable chair, both of which helped a great deal.

You should be between 18 and 28 inches from your screen, and it should be adjusted so that it is between 15 and 30 degrees below your straight-ahead line of sight. If the screen is much lower than that, you'll probably end up slouching.

Wrist Pads -- By now you've probably seen the neoprene wrist pads that many people put in front of their keyboards. I highly recommend you buy one (about $10) because they help in two important ways. First, when you type, you shouldn't rest your hand on the desk, but many people do. The wrist pad is designed to remind you to lift up slightly so your hands don't rest on any surface as you type, because that angle can compress the carpal tunnel. Secondly, when you stop typing to think, you probably put your hands down, and it's better to rest them on a soft pad than on the hard corner of a desk, which can cut off circulation and compress the carpal tunnel.

I'm convinced that these pads, simple as they are, help a great deal. Microsoft gives a wrist pad to every employee. Microsoft's wrist pads are unimpressive compared with the one I've been using from Silicon Sports. Generic wrist pads consist of a piece of neoprene or similar rubber padding, whereas Silicon Sports has a better design with two layers of padding under the colorful top covering. The lower layer is the standard dense foam rubber, but the thinner layer on top is a softer foam than the generic pads use, and I found it noticeably more comfortable. Silicon Sports also has a pad for the PowerBooks coming out soon and a clever wrist pad/mouse pad combination that fits together like puzzle pieces and keeps everything compact. Get one of these wrist pads and use it. Depending on your office-mates, it might also be good for whacking them on occasion. (Kids! Don't try this at home!)

Silicon Sports -- 800/243-2972 -- 415/327-7900

Chill Out I -- Take a break and relax. I suspect you work too hard and put in too many consecutive hours at the keyboard. You should take a break every 45 minutes or so, and by a break I mean that you should actually do something different, like go hang around the water cooler or hassle a coworker (Dan Quayle's Council on Competitiveness will have me shot for that statement.). You can do some simple exercises as well, the easiest of which are (a) gently squeezing a rubber or foam ball in your upward-facing palm and (b) extending your fingers completely until you feel a stretch, then relaxing your fingers and curling them in toward your palms.

LifeGuard -- Visionary Software has a useful little DA called LifeGuard that can nag you into actually taking these breaks. It monitors how long you're typing or mousing, and then tells you to take a break. You set the length of both the work time and the break time, and it will give you either an audible reminder or a dialog reminder that suggests something else (which you can set) to do. LifeGuard also has a useful section on exercises (including the ones mentioned above) and another one on ergonomics. Lifeguard has a number of limitations, and I'd far prefer it if you could pick a set of sounds for it to choose from randomly and if it had an option to literally lock the screen to kick you off, but it's cute and useful.

Visionary Software -- 503/246-6200

Splints -- One of the easiest things you can do that a doctor will also recommend is to get wrist splints and wear them in bed, if not also during the day. Most drugstores should have them in different sizes and shapes, although all the ones I've seen are a vague tan color. I'd like to see them in black, bright blue, and even perhaps some fluorescent colors. There's no reason they have to be ugly, and it would be nice if their velcro wasn't quite so exposed. I hate sticking to everything!

The splints are generally called "cock-up splints" or something similar because the metal splint cocks your wrist at a 20 to 30 degree angle. This position is neutral, so in theory you aren't compressing the carpal tunnel while wearing them. I also find that certain life activities, like driving a car without power steering or pushing a shopping cart, are extremely hard on damaged wrists. The wrists splints provide welcome support in those cases, but I do wish they didn't look so stupid.

Vitamins -- My doctor recommended that I take vitamin B6. Apparently the omniscient "they" have done studies showing that vitamin B6, in doses of 100 mg daily, can help cure CTS. Apparently B6 plays a role in producing neurochemical transmitters, and that can help. You can find B6 naturally in brewer's yeast, wheat germ, and blackstrap molasses, but if you're like me, your diet doesn't include those three items regularly. Supplements are probably in order.

Another vitamin that may help is vitamin E, in 400 IU doses before bed. My doctor mentioned it as well, and my father had excellent luck with it clearing up his arthritis in his mid-thirties. I've taken it on and off when I'm running competitively because I find that I tend to get shin splints otherwise. Medical science is still undecided about vitamin E, and the only things they've proven, I believe, are that it reduces free radicals (a laudable goal) and it prevents impotence in rats (an equally laudable goal).

Chill Out II -- This time I mean it literally. Current medical thought believes cold is much better than heat for aiding healing. The basic idea is that cold reduces inflammation, whereas heat may reinforce it. Also, since nerves are extremely sensitive to heat, heating aching hands may feel good, but it's deceptive because all that's happening is that the nerves that were transmitting pain impulses are now sending heat signals.

Probably the best way of applying cold to your arms is via ice massage. If you freeze water in paper cups, you can then rub your arms with the frozen cup, gradually tearing the cup away as the ice melts. It's messy and not terribly ecologically-conscious, but it works and lots of athletes use it to reduce pain and swelling after exercise.

A tidier method is to go to a sports store and pick up four or five of those ice bags that have some sort of blue gel in them. They're cheap and they work well. Don't overdo the cold. Frostbite isn't fun.

Massage -- Gentle massage on the hands, wrists, arms, and shoulders (which may often be tight and sore too), may feel good, especially if someone else does it, and you can also use a hand lotion that has vitamin E in it, just in case some vitamin E is absorbed through the skin. No clue if that's true, but I've had good luck with using it in massage.

Exercise -- When I first admitted that I had CTS, I thought a bit about what I could do that doesn't involve my hands. Other than being a couch potato, which I don't approve of, all I could think of is running. It was an excellent excuse to get out on the trails regularly. My doctor agreed that exercise was excellent, in part because it doesn't use the hands, and in part because it helps relax both the body and the mind. I'm not going to recommend that you all immediately become distance runners, but exercise-induced endorphins are good stuff (now I'll have a drug czar on my case).

Standard warnings about overdoing it apply here too. You may not think about it normally, but if you're having trouble with your hands and wrists, be careful not to clench your fists when you run, and avoid shaking your hands at the wrist. Of course, walking is good, and swimming may be, although I find that it tends to put a bit too much pressure on my wrists, depending on which stroke I use. Bowling is right out.

Alternative input devices -- Definitely look into alternative input methods that will reduce strain on your hands and wrists. The most common of these devices is the trackball, and next week we'll look at two well-designed trackballs, the CoStar Stingray and the Curtis MVP Mouse and Footswitch. Trackballs are often more comfortable because the mouse click & drag action requires a significant downward pressure, and that pressure requires additional force to move the mouse horizontally. Also, moving the mouse with your wrist and arm is more likely to compress the carpal tunnel than similar movements with a trackball, which requires only the use of the fingers.

More esoteric input devices include chord keyboards and voice controllers. Chord keyboards may help reduce CTS problems because you don't have to move your hand at the wrist to reach all the keys. A chord keyboard arrays its small number of keys so your fingers are always on the correct keys, and all you have to do is press the proper combinations. It may sound awkward, but I'll bet it took you more than an hour to learn to touch type on a standard QWERTY keyboard. We'll have more on Infogrip's BAT chord keyboard in a future issue, and you can get more information from the files stored on our fileserver.

Voice controllers are definitely neat, but they must be trained, are sensitive to changes in your voice, and can only do the sort of things you can do with QuicKeys. The Voice Navigator demos are impressive, with the slick salesman quickly drawing their logo by voice. He sounds like he swallowed an auctioneer. However, the problem is accuracy, not speed. Apple's Casper technology promises to be pretty snazzy when it ships with the next generation of high-end Macs, but I'm not holding my breath. Finally, none of these systems will do dictation - for that you need a costly speech recognition system.

Simple Drugs -- Doctors will recommend aspirin or ibuprofen early on. They may also provide a prescription for more potent stuff like Feldene, which is much stronger and has more side effects. Remember, drugs merely treat the symptoms, and unless you're in a situation where the symptoms prevent the body from healing itself, drugs may provide only temporary relief. You can't take this stuff for the rest of your life.

Relaxation -- OK, you've read all of my suggestions, but I will venture into left field here and claim that none of it will help unless you reduce your stress level. Since I've had CTS, I've talked to a number of people who have successfully defeated it in interesting ways. One swears by Tai Chi, a martial art that involves slow, deliberate movements and heightened consciousness of your body. Another had CTS so badly that they hospitalized him and gave him morphine for the pain. Surgery cured the CTS, but didn't reduce the pain. It wasn't until another doctor put him on a stress reduction program that he started to recover.

Another name for CTS-type injuries is cumulative stress injuries because you are essentially stressing a certain part of your body thousands of times an hour, and the body can't handle the stress. Mental stress will cause physical reactions as well, and the guy I spoke of above who had surgery didn't experience reduced pain until he was able to relax and break the stressful mental pathways he'd built up.

Support for this theory also comes from a study showing that early symptoms of CTS were twice as a common among communications workers who were electronically monitored than those who weren't, possibly because of lower stress levels in unmonitored workers.

I suggest that you can and must reduce your stress level to allow your body to heal. From what I've read and heard, you have a variety of choices on how to go about this, be it yoga, Tai Chi, meditation, a non-violent martial art, or even acupuncture. I suspect it will be hard for many of you, being rational computer-types like me, to try one of these methods wholeheartedly, although I gather people become much more accepting when the alternative is the knife. I also highly recommend that you look for a book called "Freedom From Stress: A Holistic Approach" by Phil Nuernberger (ISBN 0-89389-071-5). It combines well-explained scientific evidence along with advice on ways to reduce stress using the theories of yoga as a base. Do with that advice what you will - I'm trying it.

Icky things -- I don't want to talk about this much, but if you let wrist pain progress too far, Western medicine will almost certainly want to give you drugs or cut you open The first move is a cortisone injection into the wrist. This is painful and doesn't always work. Doctors generally try injecting you up to three times at intervals of three weeks. If you're lucky, the pain will recede by three days after the injection. Some people have great luck with this treatment. Others don't.

If you're not lucky, you progress to surgery. The basic principle is that the doctor can release the pressure in the carpal tunnel by slitting it so that it can expand slightly. Some people do well after this process and return to normal work several months later. However, if you don't treat the causes of CTS, you can just get it all over again. So do yourself a favor and try the stuff I suggest above wholeheartedly before you submit to the needle and the knife. It can't hurt, and I sincerely hope it helps a great deal.


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