Would you like to pay less for just the TV and movies you want to watch? That was the question that started Adam down the path to this week’s comprehensive overview of all the different ways you can get TV, how much you’ll pay, and what gotchas you may encounter. Also in this issue, if you’ve been dreaming lately of touchscreens and mobile Web browsing, you’ll be happy to know that the iPhone now has a release date: June 29th, 2007. Also later this month, Apple will start offering YouTube downloads on the Apple TV. But you won’t have to wait for an Apple TV model with a 160 GB hard disk, nor iTunes 7.2 (featuring DRM-free iTunes Plus tracks), nor several more security updates, all of which are available now.
Through a trio of commercials, Apple has revealed that Friday, June 29th will be the release date of the iPhone. The ads demonstrated some of the iPhone’s unique combination of capabilities, including watching video, a “glass” (key-free) keyboard, rich email, and integration with Google Maps and local results (see “iPhone Seeks to Redefine the Mobile Phone,” 2007-01-15) . While each of these capabilities is available on existing smartphones and other devices, no phone combines all of them, nor offers a library of music and video anywhere as extensive as Apple’s iTunes Store.
It’s unclear what Apple means by the June 29th release date: that the iPhone will arrive on your doorstep if you’ve ordered one or that you will be able to go to an Apple Store or an AT&T (formerly Cingular) corporate store to obtain one. AT&T has not yet started to accept orders for the iPhone, but I would imagine that will occur soon. AT&T recently changed the signage and other details at its many corporate stores to shed the Cingular logo and name in preparation for the iPhone launch, the company said a few weeks ago.
The advertisements confirm that an iPhone requires a two-year commitment through AT&T. Recent rumors suggested that a prepaid option would be available, but that seemed unlikely given the premium nature of the phone and the exclusivity that results from it.
The iPhone will appear in two models: a 4 GB unit for $500 and an 8 GB model for $600. The iPhone includes Wi-Fi and EDGE support, the latter being a cell data standard that runs two to three times faster than a dial-up modem, and is widely available. Pricing for Wi-Fi and EDGE plans hasn’t yet been announced.
T-Mobile offers the closest competition for such a package, with $30 per month providing unlimited use of EDGE data everywhere and Wi-Fi connections at over 7,000 T-Mobile Wi-Fi hot spots in the United States.
During last week’s D: All Things Digital conference, Apple CEO Steve Jobs and Wall Street Journal columnist Walt Mossberg chatted onstage about Apple’s latest “hobby,” the Apple TV. “The reason I call it a hobby,” said Jobs, “is a lot of people have tried and failed to make it a business. It’s a business that’s hundreds of thousands of units per year but it hasn’t crested to be millions of units per year, but I think if we improve things we can crack that.”
One method of cracking the business comes in the form of a build-to-order option, now available, to include a 160 GB hard drive in the Apple TV instead of the relatively small 40 GB capacity in the base model. Apple claims the more capacious drive will hold up to 200 hours of video or 36,000 songs, compared to 50 hours of video and 9,000 songs on the 40 GB model. The 160 GB version costs $400; the 40 GB version remains priced at $300.
More intriguing is the addition of downloadable YouTube content, something that we suspected would appear, given that the box is already capable of downloading movie trailers and other video content (see “Apple TV: The Real Video iPod,” 2007-03-26). A new YouTube menu item will lead to categories such as Featured and Most Viewed, with video streamed directly to the Apple TV. (Unofficial hacks have made it possible to view YouTube videos – and other online content – on the Apple TV since a few days after the device began shipping, but the process to implement them isn’t trivial.) The capability will be available sometime in June as a
Apple last week released two security updates, version 1.1 of Security Update 2007-005 (see “Security Update 2007-005 Released,” 2007-05-28) and Security Update (QuickTime 7.1.6). As of this writing, Apple had said nothing about what was fixed in the 1.1 version of Security Update 2007-005, but the QuickTime security update fixes two issues in QuickTime for Java that could result either in arbitrary code execution or disclosure of sensitive information. That sounds similar to the security fixes in QuickTime 7.1.6 itself from earlier this month, but it seems to be different (see “QuickTime, AirPort, Security Updates Released,” 2007-05-07). In either case, both updates are likely worthwhile. Downloads for Security Update 2007-005 1.1 are available in PowerPC (15.7 MB) and Universal (29.2 MB) forms, and Security Update (QuickTime 7.1.6) is a 1.4 MB download. Or just use Software Update to get the appropriate version for your Mac.
I imagine that for all of us, there are things we’d really like to do, but somehow have never found the opportunity. For me, one of those things is to create a 3D model of rooms in our house for the purpose of playing with furniture placement, remodeling plans, or honestly, just the fun of having a digital model of a real-world house. And were I ever to build a new house, such a tool would be essential. Alas, time doesn’t permit such experimentation at this stage in my life, but for anyone who does want to try 3D modeling of rooms, BeLight Software’s new Live Interior 3D looks like it would be a boon. It comes with more than 1,000 objects you can place within your
own plans or those you modify from the 50 or so editable templates included. It supports Google 3D Warehouse, and can import objects from other 3D programs. You can also work in 2D mode, where it supports automatic dimensioning, automatic floor and ceiling creation, and smart guides. In 3D mode, there’s a walk-through mode with multiple adjustable cameras, and you can set the time of day, geographic orientation, and lighting. It’s definitely worth a look.
Apple has released iTunes 7.2, which is notable for only one thing – the fact that it now lets you preview and purchase “iTunes Plus” music that is both higher in quality and free of Apple’s FairPlay digital rights management. As I wrote in “Apple and EMI Offer DRM-Free Music via iTunes” (2007-04-02), Apple and EMI Music announced in April 2007 that EMI’s entire digital catalog of music would be available for purchase in DRM-free form from the iTunes Store worldwide. The promised start date was May 2007, so they just squeaked in under the wire, but that’s good enough to consider it a kept promise. iTunes 7.2 is available via Software Update and as a 29.6 MB standalone download.
Besides lacking FairPlay, iTunes Plus songs and music videos are encoded as 256 Kbps AAC files, up from 128 Kbps AAC. The price for songs increases as well to $1.29, up from $0.99. Music videos remain priced at $1.99, and although their audio quality increases, the video quality remains the same.
To purchase songs and videos in iTunes Plus format, you must enable iTunes Plus in your account preferences, although iTunes 7.2 prompts you to do this if you try to purchase a song that’s available in iTunes Plus. Once enabled, you see a little + sign next to the $1.29 price of iTunes Plus tracks.
If you’ve purchased DRM-protected songs already, you can upgrade them to iTunes Plus versions for the $0.30 price difference from the Upgrade My Library page in the iTunes Store. You’ll have to check back at that page over time to see if additional songs have been released in iTunes Plus format. Music videos cost $0.60 to upgrade, and entire albums are available at 30 percent of the current album price. When you upgrade a song, iTunes downloads the new one and optionally places the original version in an “Original iTunes Purchases” folder so you can compare it to the iTunes Plus version to see if you can hear the quality difference.
(It’s interesting to see Apple putting both the iTunes Plus preferences and the Upgrade My Library functionality in the iTunes Store, rather than in iTunes itself. The approach makes sense, since iTunes is increasingly becoming a true Internet application that’s easier to enhance without pushing code to millions of Macs and PCs.)
iTunes Plus is certainly a good thing for consumers who found even FairPlay’s relatively reasonable restrictions irritating, for those who will appreciate the higher audio quality, and for the subset of people who refused to purchase from the iTunes Store because of DRM restrictions. Even though EMI is offering DRM-free music to other online music stores, and eMusic has long sold DRM-free music, it’s also a PR boon for Apple, which gets to be seen as helping in the push to free music from onerous DRM. EMI wins too, both in terms of increased revenue from sales of iTunes Plus tracks and the increased sales that will no doubt result from EMI music being featured on the new iTunes Plus page in the iTunes Store.
However, Ars Technica is reporting that Apple embeds your full name and email address in tracks purchased from the iTunes Store, something that has apparently been true since the beginning but that wasn’t relevant when those tracks couldn’t be played without authorization. With iTunes Plus tracks, though, this hidden branding could theoretically be used to trace shared tracks back to the original purchaser, although without some form of digital signature, that information could also be spoofed as a way to frame an innocent user. It’s not yet clear what Apple plans to do with this information, if anything, but such use of
Audio developer Rogue Amoeba is happy about iTunes Plus, since the removal of DRM enables their Fission audio manipulation program to work with iTunes Plus tracks to create ringtones, create sound bites, or just edit out the applause in live tracks. (John Gruber of Daring Fireball noted, however, that updated terms of service for iTunes 7.2 specifically disallow use of purchased music as ringtones, not that such a limitation is in any way enforceable.) What I’m really looking forward to, though, is audiobooks in iTunes Plus format, since it bugs me that a single
audiobook comes from the iTunes Store in multiple files, making it annoying to play. There are workarounds (see “Audio File Concatenation: Driven to Distraction by DR,” 2005-11-14), but they’re cumbersome, and just being able to join unprotected AAC files would be a boon.
The two questions that remain are how quickly other music labels will jump on the iTunes Plus bandwagon and whether Apple will remove DRM from video. Stay iTuned…
We’re in the middle of a sea change in how we acquire and watch video, whether serialized television shows, must-see sporting events, blockbuster movies, quirky documentaries, or even homemade video clips. It has become wildly confusing, with choices ranging from the old rabbit ears to the iTunes Store. I’ve been thinking about the topic for quite some time with an eye toward trying to compare all the possibilities in terms of cost, show selection, and more. This started as a personal project, but as I delved into the research, I realized that what made sense for our family was by no means ideal for everyone. And so I increased my scope in an attempt to lay out for everyone the possibilities and to come up with recommendations for those
whose viewing preferences differ from ours. Sit back, relax, and join me on a long tour through our video-filled world.
The History of Video — For many years, and for all of my rural childhood, over-the-air broadcast television was all that was available, though cable TV and, later, satellite dishes increased the number of channels that could be received. At some point in the 1980s, the VCR appeared, enabling both time-shifting and an aftermarket for movies, prompting MPAA head Jack Valenti’s famous quote, “I say to you that the VCR is to the American film producer and the American public as the Boston Strangler is to the woman home alone.” Needless to say, Jack Valenti couldn’t have been more wrong, with the VCR and then the DVD player generating a vast source of new revenue
for the movie and television industry via post-release sales. In 1998, the slim size and durability of DVD discs also made possible the online DVD rental company Netflix and a number of smaller and more focused competitors.
As the original Napster caused panic among the music studios, the movie industry watched carefully, initially insulated from peer-to-peer copying by numerous technical limitations. Computers in the mid-1990s lacked sufficient processing power to encode and decode video at necessary speeds, hard disks weren’t sufficiently large to store reasonable amounts of video, and too few people had sufficiently fat broadband pipes to download full-length movie files. Needless to say, those limitations fell by the wayside quickly. Aided by the breaking of the DVD copy-protection approach, the Content Scramble System in October 1999 by Jon Lech Johansen and two others via the program
DeCSS, full-scale copying of DVDs became possible and indeed commonplace.
Legal downloading of video wasn’t far behind, with numerous video-on-demand services springing up for people with Windows PCs. But none put all the pieces together (wide selection, good business model, simple user experience) until Apple introduced video to the iTunes Store, making it possible for individuals to purchase full-length movies, first-run television shows, short films, and music videos for playing in iTunes on either a Mac, a PC, or a video iPod. Although Apple’s selection was initially slim, significantly more videos have appeared on the iTunes Store since, and it’s clear from sales (see “Disney Sells 125,000 Movies in First Week on iTunes Store,” 2006-09-25) that the
Internet will be a popular method of acquiring video.
Perhaps the most unexpected challenge to the studios and networks came, however, not from illegal downloads, but from video-sharing sites like YouTube and Google Video, which attract tens of thousands of homemade video uploads daily, and many millions of viewers. Though no money changes hands, the time viewers spend watching short clips on sites like YouTube (now owned by Google; see “Google Buys YouTube for $1.65 Billion,” 2006-10-16) is time that won’t be spent watching traditional television and movies.
Setting the Stage — All this raises the question – what’s the best way to acquire video entertainment these days? And that in turn asks the question of what “best” means. I think people determine how they’ll acquire video in a number of ways:
- Availability. Every method of acquiring video has some requirements, and for many people, those requirements may be impossible or financially infeasible. Broadcast television assumes that there’s a signal you can receive, and any sort of downloadable video assumes you can acquire and afford high-speed Internet access.
- Cost. Scott Adams’s comic strip character Dilbert may not have been referring to video when he said, “What the customer wants is better products for free,” but the quote applies. Television used to be free in exchange for our viewing of commercials, but those days are long gone. Or are they?
- Selection of shows. The rise of cable TV was driven by one factor alone – the selection of shows on broadcast TV (which was non-existent if you couldn’t pick up any channels). But as we quickly discovered, selection isn’t everything, as Bruce Springsteen complained in “57 Channels (And Nothin’ On).”
- Freshness. We want it in our produce, and we want it in our video too. After all, for better or worse, television remains the way many people learn about what’s happening in the outside world, and discussing the latest baseball game or hit TV show with friends and colleagues remains a significant cultural common ground.
- Time-shifting. In addition to freshness, we also want control over when we watch. Thanks to new technologies and business models, the tyranny of the broadcast TV schedule is becoming a thing of the past.
- Place-shifting. Finally, although most people still watch video on TV screens that continually increase in size, portable DVD players have been around for a while, laptop displays are now frequently large and widescreen, and video iPods are becoming ever more popular. In essence, we’re saying that we want control over not just what and when we watch, but where we watch it too.
There’s one additional variable that most people probably don’t think about, but which comes into play whenever time- and place-shifting are discussed: legality. Almost by definition, time- and place-shifting require a copy to made, whether it’s on a VHS tape or an iPod. In some cases, that action may be entirely legal, whereas in others it may be fraught with legal liability. (At least the FCC’s controversial “broadcast flag” rule, which would have prohibited the manufacture of hardware lacking copy prevention hardware to prevent time- and place-shifting, was struck down in 2005 before it went into effect.)
Let’s rate each of the following methods of tuning in according to these criteria.
Broadcast Over the Air — To many of us, with our high-speed Internet connections, over-the-air broadcast television may seem a quaint image of the 1950s, with images of Dad up on the roof adjusting the antenna to improve reception of the big game. The reality is that as of December 2006, about 13 percent of U.S. television households – roughly 15 million homes – still rely on broadcast TV, as do higher percentages of viewers in other countries. And why not? Availability suffers from physical barriers and the selection of shows can be restricted by limited channel reception. But at the same time, advertising-supported broadcast TV is free to receive; provides the latest network news, major sports events, and
most commonly watched shows; and doesn’t restrict viewers’ ability to time-shift. Place-shifting is tougher, since it requires first recording shows to a digital format, but I suspect that most people content with broadcast television aren’t the target audience for place-shifting hardware like the iPod.
It’s worth noting that a digital video recorder (DVR) like the TiVo significantly improves not just the viewer’s ability to time-shift, but also broadcast TV’s show selection. That’s not because it can pull in shows that weren’t there before, but because it enables more efficient mining of shows that are broadcast at odd times.
For those in the United States, it’s particularly worth noting that as broadcasters switch from old analog channels to new high-definition digital channels, they can offer more channels. The switch must be complete by 18-Feb-09, so by that point you’ll need a converter to use existing analog televisions, or you’ll need to buy a new digital TV (see the just-released second edition of Clark Humphrey’s “Take Control of Digital TV” for help with that process). The Consumer Electronics Association estimates that 99 percent of U.S. television households can receive one digital channel; 89 percent can receive five or more. The Consumer Electronics Association’s AntennaWeb site has an interesting FAQ and an online “interactive antenna mapping program” that provides advice about which stations (digital and analog) you are likely to receive, along with a map showing exactly how to orient your antenna. You can also check Antenna Direct’s list of HDTV stations to see a long list of over-the-air HD stations. The Canadian HD experience for over-the-air broadcasts is similar; see HDTV Digital Home.
- Availability: Good, particularly in metropolitan areas
- Ongoing Cost: $0, with ads
- Selection of shows: Limited to mainstream shows; improved with a DVR
- Freshness: Excellent for TV, poor for movies
- Time-shifting: Requires VCR or DVR, but legal
- Place-shifting: Possible, but requires extra effort and gear
Cable/Satellite — Broadcast isn’t yet dead, and satellite TV is attracting ever more subscribers, but cable TV still rules, at least in the United States, where about 60 percent of households (65.6 million homes) have cable, and another 27 percent (30.1 million homes) subscribe to satellite TV. Worldwide, there are 1.2 billion television households, but only about 30 percent of those rely on cable TV. Although the average price for basic expanded cable is about $41 per month in the United States, both cable and satellite subscribers report paying an average of $58 per month thanks to extra services, and it’s easy to see bills into the $80 per month range. Despite those steep monthly charges that
generated $68.2 billion for the U.S. cable industry in 2006, advertising is still prevalent, accounting for another $23.8 billion in revenues. If we know that the average monthly bill is $58, and the average American watches (gasp!) 4.5 hours of TV per day, that puts the cost of cable or satellite TV at only $0.43 per hour. (As an aside, a recent study found that watching 3 or more hours of TV per day puts teenagers at increased risk of learning difficulties.)
Cable and satellite TV fare very well when it comes to freshness, with plenty of real-time news, sports, and current programming, and they also do well in terms of show selection. However, the massive amount of programming available is applied in shotgun fashion, so you can easily find yourself flipping through hundreds of channels without finding anything you want to watch. The sheer number of programs is overwhelming, making a DVR like the TiVo – or even the less-capable models rented out by the cable/satellite companies – essential not just for time-shifting (which is legal), but also for separating the wheat from the chaff. As with broadcast TV, place-shifting requires extra hardware and fuss; few people will go to the effort of
extracting video from a TiVo to watch on an iPod.
- Availability: Excellent
- Ongoing Cost: $20-$80 per month, with ads (average is $58 per month, or $0.43 per hour)
- Selection of shows: Very good; almost requires a DVR to sort through
- Freshness: Excellent, especially for sports fans
- Time-shifting: Requires VCR or DVR, but legal
- Place-shifting: Difficult
Purchasing Pre-Recorded Video on DVD — The market for pre-recorded video started with the VCR but has been almost entirely supplanted by DVD. Although VCRs and DVD players are essentially equally popular, with between 75 and 82 percent of U.S. households owning one, the VCR is in significant decline, with sales of DVD players outstripping VCRs 40 to 1 globally. More telling, of the $24.2 billion spent on pre-recorded content in the United States last year, VHS claimed only $100 million (way down from $3 billion in 2004). 2006’s total take of pre-recorded content was, in fact, lower than both 2005 and 2004, with the only increased portion coming from a $300 million jump in DVD sales. And even that
growth was largely fueled by the increase in sales of TV show collections, which made up 18 percent of market in 2006, up from 8 percent in 2002. Also, TV DVDs cost an average of $41 for a full season, in comparison to an average price of $17 for a DVD movie.
The per-minute cost of purchased content on DVD varies significantly, from just under 4 cents to nearly 17 cents, with the lower costs coming for large bundles that bring together multiple seasons of a TV show or a movie and several sequels. That works out to between $2.40 and $10.20 per hour, and if all you watched was pre-recorded video, even assuming only 2 hours of watching per day, that would still come out to between about $140 and $600 per month. Obviously, dropping the average watching time to only 1 hour per day halves those numbers, but it’s still much higher than cable or satellite.
However, although purchasing pre-recorded content may not make sense for one-time viewing, children often watch DVDs many times, reducing the cost with each viewing. I couldn’t find stats to back this up, but I also believe that people in their 20s, who grew up squarely in the generation that could watch videotapes or DVDs multiple times, are still more likely to watch TV shows or movies multiple times as adults. That’s in contrast with those of us who predate the VCR generation, and remember when it was a big deal because “The Wizard of Oz” came on TV each year. (Tonya and I own only a handful of movies that we watch multiple times, with each viewing often separated by years.) Plus, even for people who don’t plan to watch a purchased
DVD many times, the DVD has value as a collector’s item.
The selection of shows is good, but not great, because back catalogs are still being transferred to video, so, for instance, not all seasons of the 1990s TV series “Northern Exposure” are available yet. It’s not just TV shows either; reportedly, only about 50,000 of the 500,000 or so movies listed on the Internet Movie Database have been digitized and made available on DVD. Plus, the lag time between the airing of new TV shows and the theatrical release of movies and the subsequent release of the DVD hurts both show selection and the freshness of available content. Time-shifting is inherent in the medium, since you can watch whenever you want, but place-shifting is legally possible only if you own a portable DVD player or DVD-equipped
laptop. Ripping physical DVDs to avoid carrying them on a plane or to watch them on a video-capable iPod is perfectly possible with the open-source HandBrake, but ripping is a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), despite the fact that place-shifting is legal in all other situations.
- Availability: Excellent (requires inexpensive DVD player)
- Ongoing Cost: $140 to $600 per month, or $2.40 to $10.20 per hour
- Selection of shows: Good
- Freshness: Poor
- Time-shifting: On a per-DVD basis
- Place-shifting: Requires laptop or portable DVD player; otherwise violates DMCA
Netflix and Online Video Rental Services — Purchasing pre-recorded content may make little sense for one-time viewing, but renting DVDs is an entirely different cost proposition. A Netflix subscription costs between $5 and $48 per month, depending on how many DVDs you want checked out simultaneously. Other online video rental services offer similar plans, but with nearly 6.8 million customers, Netflix is by far the largest, with Blockbuster a distant second. One advantage of the Blockbuster Total Access service is that you can also pick up DVDs at a local Blockbuster store if you can’t wait for
snail mail delivery.
It’s hard to calculate Netflix’s cost on a per-hour basis, but on an “unlimited” plan, the limiting factor is how quickly you can watch a DVD and return it to Netflix. Assuming an average turnaround time of 7 days, a 1-out unlimited subscription equates to 4 DVDs in a month. Four DVDs of a TV series could reach 16 hours or more, whereas four DVDs of short 80 minute movies would be about 5.2 hours. Thus, the cost-per-hour for a month ranges from $0.63 to $1.92 for the 1-out plan. The 2-out plan is a bit cheaper, and starting with the 3-out plan, the costs settle into the range of $0.38 to $1.15 per hour.
In terms of show selection and freshness, Netflix is nearly as good as the option of purchasing pre-recorded video – the difference coming in adult content, which Netflix doesn’t carry. Other services specialize in it, however, so the overall category of online video rental services is comparable. Another slight ding for Netflix’s show selection is that popular new releases generate waiting lists, so you may need to wait a little longer to receive a hot new movie.
- Availability: Excellent (at least in the United States)
- Ongoing Cost: $5-$48 per month, or $0.38 to $1.92 per hour
- Selection of shows: Good, with queue and genre caveats
- Freshness: Poor
- Place-shifting: Requires laptop or portable DVD player; otherwise violates DMCA
P2P File-Sharing Services — Of course, the fact that ripping DVDs violates the DMCA has in no way prevented it from happening. Nor, now that many people have sufficient bandwidth to download full-length movies, has the legal liability prevented massive sharing of video online via peer-to-peer file-sharing services. The appeal? Downloading is free, or at least no additional cost beyond the price of a broadband connection.
However, P2P downloading makes users pay in other ways. Finding and downloading particular movies or TV shows is time-intensive and often fraught with frustration and failure. Problems include being unable to find the desired show or movie, download times measured in days or weeks, ending up with a foreign-language dub, poor audio or video quality, and more. The selection of shows is impossible to predict, since the availability of a given show varies constantly with who’s online. The freshness of content can be good, since users are more likely to share the latest releases than old movies, but there’s no guarantee that you’ll be able to download the latest episode of anything.
Not surprisingly, most of the users of the P2P file-sharing services are young people with more time than money, and for whom downloaded video has a whiff of danger and the cachet of rebellion.
- Availability: Good (requires broadband Internet and a modern computer)
- Ongoing Cost: $0 (but requires a large time investment)
- Selection of shows: Poor
- Freshness: Mediocre
- Time-shifting: Violates DMCA
- Place-shifting: Violates DMCA
iTunes Store — Not all video downloads are inherently a violation of the DMCA, and thanks to Apple, it’s now possible to purchase a variety of TV shows and movies from the iTunes Store. Or rather, it’s possible if you have an iTunes Store with video in your country, if you have a modern computer running iTunes, and if you have a broadband connection. Lots of people do, but far fewer than those who can, for instance, receive cable or satellite TV.
The selection of shows is, on balance, poor. Apple is adding shows and movies all the time, but in comparison with the wealth of video content available in any other forum, the iTunes Store doesn’t yet match up. What it does have is quite fresh, though, with new TV shows appearing quickly, along with first-run movies, and some sports shows.
Calculating the cost of video purchased from the iTunes Store is both easy and difficult. TV shows, whether they’re 30 or 60 minutes long, cost $2. And movies cost either $15 for recent releases or $10 for older movies, with running times varying between about 80 minutes and 140 minutes. Purchasing a multi-pass for 16 episodes of something like “The Daily Show with Jon Stewart” drops the price by about 40 percent; buying a season pass to a TV show cuts the price by 5 to 40 percent (usually about 17 percent). So to return to the cost-per-hour calculation we performed for pre-recorded video, we’d end up with a range starting at $1.25 per hour for an hour-long TV show purchased as part of a multi-pass and going all the way up to $11.25 per
hour for a first-run movie that’s relatively short. At 2 hours per day (less than half the national average), the monthly fee would range from $75 to $675.
As with pre-recorded content, if you fall into the 2 hour per day category, getting all your video from the iTunes Store makes no financial sense, but there are other advantages, such the ease of getting just what you want, the ease of moving video to an iPod, and the ease of watching downloaded video on a television via Apple TV.
Of all the methods of acquiring video, downloading from the iTunes Store is perhaps the friendliest to time-shifting, since you can at any time decide what you want, buy it, and be watching nearly instantly. (To be fair, Netflix now offers the similar Watch Now service with some of its movies, but it requires Windows XP-only software to handle the Microsoft DRM.) Place-shifting is easy and legal as well, but only if you want to watch on a laptop or video-capable iPod.
Competing with the iTunes Store is Amazon Unbox, which like the Netflix immediate download approach, works only with Windows and broadband-connected Series2 or Series3 TiVo units. Purchasing TV shows and movies costs essentially the same as the iTunes Store, though Amazon Unbox also offers movie rentals for between $2 and $4.
- Availability: Good (requires broadband Internet and a modern computer)
- Ongoing Cost: $75 to $675 per month, or $1.25 to $11.25 per hour
- Selection of shows: Poor, but improving
- Freshness: Excellent
- Time-shifting: Easy and legal
- Place-shifting: Easy and legal, but requires laptop or video-capable iPod
Online Streaming from the Television Networks — In recent months, the major television networks have started to change their role from pure providers of content to distributors as well, thanks to the Internet. Episodes of a number of current TV shows are provided free via the networks’ Web sites, though with ads that cannot be skipped. The quality of the players varies a little and suffers a bit at full screen, but seems generally fine over a broadband connection, and it works fine on the Mac. Both time-shifting and place-shifting are supported with this approach, although both have some limits. The networks don’t provide full back catalogs of shows, so you may have to watch on a fairly regular basis
or purchase missed shows from the iTunes Store. And place-shifting is inherent in the system… as long as you’re watching on a laptop and have a broadband Internet connection available. As far as I can tell, there’s no easy way to record these video streams for later viewing on a video iPod.
In some ways, online streamed TV provides what so many cable and satellite subscribers have wanted – the ability to pick and choose without feeling as though you’re paying for the vast amount of dreck that’s available on the rest of those 200 channels.
It’s also worth mentioning Joost, a company founded by the guys who started Skype. Currently in invitation-only beta, Joost promises to provide streamed video. Unlike the networks, it’s using a peer-to-peer system that spreads the bandwidth load, but which may suffer quality of service problems, since the bandwidth cannot be guaranteed. It requires special software that’s available for Mac OS X along with Windows XP and Vista. Joost is ad-supported, with short ads that are inserted at fairly frequent intervals into the programming. Not having seen Joost in person yet, I can’t provide more details, but I imagine it will be public soon enough.
- Availability: Good (requires broadband Internet and a modern computer)
- Ongoing Cost: $0, with ads
- Selection of shows: Limited to a selection of mainstream shows
- Freshness: Excellent
- Time-shifting: Limited to the episodes of shows made available
- Place-shifting: Requires laptop and broadband Internet connection
YouTube — The sea change that’s threatening to engulf mainstream video is led by Google’s YouTube, although there are a number of competing services, including Google’s own Google Video. What’s different about YouTube is that its many millions of videos are contributed for free by users of the service, although there has been a spate of partnerships with groups like CBS, the BBC, the NBA, and the Sundance Channel. It’s almost impossible to compare YouTube’s content with what you would find anywhere else, because almost all of it is short, amateurishly produced, and poorly displayed in a tiny box in a Web
page. (Apple just announced that YouTube content would become available on the Apple TV by way of a free software update later this month, but the video quality doesn’t appear to be improved – in fact, you’re taking highly compressed Web video and enlarging it for a widescreen TV, so the quality is going to be less than ideal.) But that’s the charm of it as well; it’s easy to find yourself watching utterly unpredictable bits of video after idly clicking into YouTube from a Web link.
While it may not be possible to compare YouTube to mainstream video, there’s no question that TV networks and providers are extremely nervous about the rise of YouTube. We all have a limited amount of time to watch video (though it’s apparently more limited for people like me than for the average American), and time spent watching YouTube takes away from time spent watching normal TV. What’s not to fear? It doesn’t cost anything for people to watch videos on YouTube, and it’s unclear if even Google will be able to come up with a way to make YouTube earn its bandwidth keep. YouTube is not a future that TV executives like to dream about at night.
- Availability: Good (requires broadband Internet and a modern computer)
- Ongoing Cost: $0
- Selection of shows: Insane
- Freshness: Excellent
- Time-shifting: Easy and legal
- Place-shifting: Legal, but requires video-capable iPod or Internet-connected laptop
Personal Experiences — The genesis of this article came from my attempt to bring coherency to the video landscape for our family. From the point Tonya and I left for college in 1985 until 2001, when we moved back to Ithaca, we had only over-the-air TV, either because that was all that was available or because we weren’t willing to pay for cable or satellite TV. We’ve always made heavy use of time-shifting, first with a VCR (supplemented for a while with a short-lived electronic program scheduler called a VideoGuide; mentioned in “Macworld Superlatives,” 1995-08-21), and then with a TiVo, which we’ve covered in
TidBITS numerous times.
When we returned to Ithaca in 2001, Time Warner made it easy to add digital cable TV to our cable-modem subscription, and it was fun for a while to let the TiVo loose among the hundreds of channels we received. But having all that video available on the TiVo proved stressful, since we felt the need to keep up in order to prevent older unwatched shows from being deleted. We realized that we were watching TV more – 7 to 10 hours per week – just to manage the TiVo’s contents, and worse, we often ended up watching shows that we either didn’t reliably enjoy or found stressful before bed. It was fascinating – we were drawn like moths to a flame, to an activity that required significant time and money and often left us either slightly
disgusted about how we’d spent the time or too wired to sleep. So in December 2004, we dropped cable TV and promised ourselves that we’d spend the money we saved on just the media that we wanted, whether print books, purchased DVDs, a Netflix subscription, audiobooks that we used to help us fall asleep (see “iPods Defeating Insomnia,” 2005-02-28), support for podcast radio shows like This American Life or On the Media, or donations to the local public library.
So as much as this appears to be downright un-American, we’re down to 3 to 5 hours of video per week. Thanks to a Netflix subscription, when we choose to watch video (on my MacBook or Tonya’s MacBook Pro, since we don’t own a standalone DVD player), we’re catching up on TV series that we missed during the many years we could get only over-the-air broadcasts, along with the occasional movie (we’ve never been big moviegoers either). Tristan’s choices tend toward naval history documentaries left on the TiVo and Looney Tunes DVDs he received for Christmas. Occasionally we watch YouTube clips I’ve heard about from friends, and tons of great lectures are available from the Internet too, such as the discussion between author Michael Pollan (of “The Omnivore’s Dilemma” fame) and Whole Foods CEO John Mackey. But what’s important is that we’re choosing what to do, whether watching video, reading books, listening to podcasts, discussing the day’s events, or participating in other indoor sports.
What About You? — I’m fine with the fact that we’re statistical outliers in terms of the amount of video we watch. But if you’re trying to figure out what of this cornucopia of options makes the most sense for you, here are a few thoughts, based on viewing patterns I’ve observed:
- TV-involved. If you eagerly await the new shows every season and follow the plots of multiple series, or if you’re addicted to watching live sports on TV, cable or satellite TV is the only way to go. The selection is very good, the freshness can’t be beat, and the cost per hour drops as you watch more. Do yourself a favor and get a DVR, though, so you can control what you watch when – there is no reason in this modern world to enslave yourself to the whims of network TV schedulers. Over-the-air broadcasts and network Web streams probably lack the selection you want, even if you can’t beat the price; the iTunes Store would be more expensive and have a smaller selection; and all the other options fail entirely in the freshness
- Movie buff. The choice is clear here – you need a Netflix subscription. You’re unlikely to find many movies you want to see that Netflix doesn’t carry, and both the monthly and per-hour costs are bargains compared to purchasing the DVDs yourself. Over-the-air and cable/satellite TV run lots of movies, but the selection is highly random, and iTunes doesn’t have the selection yet, though I anticipate that will change in the next few years.
- Kid vid. Since children so often want to watch shows repeatedly, purchasing pre-recorded content on DVD or VHS tape is the best deal and provides the best selection. The iTunes Store is also a contender in this space if what you want to see is included in the 35 TV shows and 66 movies in the Kids category, and as a bonus, digital files won’t wear out or get scratched. If you don’t want a kid monopolizing a Mac for watching DVDs, an Apple TV or a portable DVD player would be a help. For another option, consider subscribing to cable for a period of time, loading up a TiVo with kid shows and movies, and then canceling your subscription. Over-the-air broadcasts fall down in terms of selection and in the ease of recording and replaying
content. Netflix is good, but only if you don’t want to enable repeated viewings over time (and ripping a rented DVD for that purpose violates both the letter and the spirit of copyright law).
- Time-constrained. If you don’t wish to spend what limited time you have on TV, while not cutting it out entirely, go with a Netflix subscription, supplemented with current TV shows from the iTunes Store and networks’ Web streams. You’ll stay in control and save money by restricting the amount of video available to watch to just those items you really want to see. Whatever you do, don’t get sucked into downloading video from P2P file-sharing services, since then you’ll spend much of your precious time on finding and managing downloads.
- Tight budget. If your goal is to pay as little as possible for video, either pull out the rabbit ears for over-the-air broadcasts or turn to the Internet, where you can download vast amounts of video for free, legally. To supplement Internet video with commercial video, I recommend either a cheap Netflix plan or selective use of the iTunes Store’s multi-passes or season passes. Whether or not you choose to download video from P2P file-sharing services is up to you, but at the moment, it seems relatively safe from prosecution, although it’s a large time sink.
Again, perhaps I’m odd, but I feel a lot better having worked through the economics and restrictions of the options. Before, I had a nagging feeling that we were paying too much for the amount of enjoyment we derived from TV, and now I can rest easy knowing that we’re on just the right plan, at least for the moment.
Two New Ebooks Improve Your TV Experience — Whether the video you see on your TV screen is too blurry, too jagged, too small, too old, too new, too boring, too weird, or just too much, you can make it better with the advice in two new ebooks.
Are you tired of hearing how your analog viewing habits make you a crusty dinosaur, but worried that DVDs from your Netflix subscription won’t look good on a new high-definition digital TV? Or are you wondering how you can survive shopping for a new TV without paying too much for features you don’t need? Learn how to shop like a pro and get the right peripherals, find HD content, and set up your new system with the second edition of “Take Control of Digital TV.” If you’re like us, you’re also downloading video from the Internet or wondering if you can just use your computer as a TV, so the ebook also looks at how to bring your computer into the
mix, with notes on video-download sites and products such as the Apple TV and Elgato’s EyeTV line. The ebook includes coupons for $5 off at Small Dog Electronics and $20 off the purchase of Elgato’s EyeTV Hybrid.
Of course, the just-enhanced Apple TV is the hottest mix-your-computer-with-your-TV product around, and if you want to know more about how to set it up, work with it, and troubleshoot any problems, you can find friendly, expert advice in the “Macworld Apple TV Superguide.” Buy both books together and save $5.
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