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This week Matt Neuburg examines the latest and greatest release of HyperCard, version 2.2; Mark Anbinder reports on the demise of the Apple Catalog and on additions to the Apple Remote Access family; and we briefly look at the latest Sculley soap opera and a major problem with PowerTalk. Finally, for those on the Internet, a complete list of Info-Mac mirror sites.


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For those who celebrate it (and we have no clue how widespread it is in the world), Happy Valentine's Day!

Sculley Quits -- We're not talking Apple news here any more, but to continue the John Sculley soap opera, Sculley announced last week that he is resigning from Spectrum Information Technologies. Sculley's rationale was that Spectrum, and specifically Spectrum founder Peter Caserta, misled him about problems at the company when he accepted the position. And, just to show that Sculley believes in the American way (when in doubt, sue), he's filing a $10 million suit against Caserta "in connection with matters relating to the circumstances under which I was induced to join Spectrum, to my obvious detriment." Apparently, one of the main problems Spectrum failed to tell Sculley about was the SEC inquiry into Spectrum's potentially dubious reporting of potential earnings after a deal with AT&T (TidBITS #199). Spectrum also appears to believes in the American way (when in doubt, counter-sue), so the company is suing Sculley for more than $300 million in damages. The firm of KPMG Peat Marwick seemingly wants to have nothing to do with any of them, and has resigned as Spectrum's auditor. The juiciest detail is that three Spectrum insiders sold stock worth $13.2 million when Spectrum's stock rose precipitously after the news of Sculley's hiring (it's since fallen equally precipitously). Tune in next week when we find out how all the money really came from space alien Contra rebels through an S&L.

PowerTalk deletes email in your In Tray if you delete from your Key Chain the personal gateway software that received said email. Thanks to David Thompson of StarNine Technologies for posting this information on the nets. Every personal gateway is affected, so if you plan on deleting one from your Key Chain, copy its mail to a folder first. Email that came in via routes other than the deleted personal gateway should be fine.

You cannot recover the mail by reinstalling the gateway, but you can recover the deleted messages using a special technique. PowerTalk stores email in a folder called IPM Bin, which lives within your PowerTalk Data folder within your System Folder. If you move all of the remaining email in your In Tray out to a folder (you can't move them back into your In Tray after that, unless the folder you chose was the Trash), you will find files with 8-digit hex number names still in the IPM Bin folder, some of which match your missing email. Drop them on AppleMail, which can open and save them (as long as they were sent from AppleMail). Let's hope that Apple clarifies in PowerTalk just what happens when you remove a personal gateway from your Key Chain.

Apple Catalog Nixed

by Mark H. Anbinder, News Editor --

Technical Support Coordinator, BAKA Computers

Never one of Apple's more popular sales channels, the Apple Catalog has been laid to rest after losing a significant amount of money for the company during slightly more than a year of operation. The Apple Catalog was especially unpopular with dealers, who felt that Apple was competing with them directly.

The Catalog was discontinued on 01-Feb-94, but while stock is still on hand, Apple will continue to take orders in some product categories, including desktop Macs, PowerBooks, and products for disabled people. We hope that Apple will take any items that are in short supply in other channels and redistribute them, rather than wait for such orders.

Orders for out of stock and backordered items, even orders placed before 01-Feb-94, will not be filled; customers whose orders must be cancelled will be notified by mail.

The Apple Catalog was a convenient source of manuals and cables, especially for discontinued Apple products. Apple assures us that dealers may still purchase manuals that are not long gone, and Apple dealers and other resellers (such as the popular mail-order houses) usually have or can obtain cables appropriate to any task.

ARA Options

by Mark H. Anbinder, News Editor --

The Apple Remote Access family now includes several products that make it possible for users to select precisely what they need. These include a personal all-in-one package that replaces the original ARA 1.0 package, multi-port server packages, multi-user client packages, and upgrades for owners of ARA 1.0.

The Remote Access Personal Server, retail $249, includes both client and server software, licensed for a single user to use at "both ends." This is similar to the ARA 1.0 package, which included both client and server functions in the package.

The Remote Access MultiPort Server package, retail $1,799, includes the server software and client software for four users, and a multiport serial NuBus card and cable. The Remote Access MultiPort Server 4-Port Expansion Kit, for $1,499, leaves out the server software, but provides the multiport serial card, four clients, and cable.

The Remote Access Client 10-pack retails for $599, and adds a ten-user license to your existing ARA server.

Owners of ARA 1.0 can upgrade to the ARA Personal Server for $79. Owners of ARA 1.0 who just need the new client software can upgrade for $29. Proof of purchase is required.

Trilobyte's ARACommander client software, which requires ARA, fully supports ARA 2.0's new features, and also adds quite a bit of its own functionality, in ease-of-use and security areas. It costs $35 for a single-user copy, but only $675 for a 100-user license (there are various stages in between as well). In my opinion this software is well worth the extra investment.

Shiva and Cayman both have hardware servers that don't require a Macintosh to act as the ARA server, and I believe both have upgraded or are about to upgrade their products to support ARA 2.0. Global Village is about to introduce a hardware server that has slots allowing installation of its PowerBook internal modems, which will take up much less space than the hardware servers that use external modems.

Cayman Systems -- 800/473-4776 -- 617/494-1999
Shiva Corporation -- 800/458-3550 -- 617/252-6300
Trilobyte Software -- 513/777-6641 -- 513/779-7760 (fax)

Info-Mac Archive Mirror Sites

Liam Breck <> passed on this list of Info-Mac mirror sites, FTP sites that carry more or less the same files as the main Info-Mac site. We recommend that Internet users use these mirror sites instead of the main site because <> is having trouble handling the massive demand, so much so that it has become difficult for the Info-Mac moderators to manage the archive. If you know of a mirror site not listed here or would like to set up a new mirror site, please send email to <>.

Each entry in the list below contains (odd bits explained below):

 Internet address         Internet number  archive directory           #/#
 contents                                  access methods
 organization, city, [state,] country
 [notes about the site]
 * Internet number
    Try using this number if the Internet address doesn't work.
 * #/#
    The number of updates made to the mirror per number of days.
    (1/1 is once a day, 1/14 is once every fourteen days.)
 * Contents
    ALL -- the site carries all directories in the archive.
    RECENT -- the site carries only files added within the past year.
    VERY-RECENT -- the site carries only files from the past few months.            micros/mac/info-mac            1/1
 ALL                                       ftp gopher
 AARNet, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia      mac/info-mac                   1/1
 ALL                                       ftp gopher
 Vienna University, Vienna, Austria           ?                pub/mac/info-mac                 ?
 ?                                         ftp
 University of British Columbia, BC, Canada       pub/mac/info-mac               1/1
 VERY-RECENT ALL                           ftp gopher
 Finnish Academic and Research Network FUNET, Espoo, Finland           info-mac                       2/1
 RECENT ALL                                ftp
 Jyvaskyla University, Jyvaskyla, Finland
 all binhex converted to macbinary      pub/mac/info-mac               1/1
 RECENT ALL                                ftp gopher email
 Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
 email service:       pub/info-mac                   3/7
 RECENT ALL                                ftp
 University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany       /pub/info-mac                  1/1
 VERY-RECENT application cfg cmp comm dev disk gui nwt prn sci text vir
                                           ftp gopher
 University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany
 gopher available via      pub/systems/mac/info-mac       1/7
 vir card gui comm sci cmp prn cfg text nwt  ftp
 Rechenzentrum Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany      pub/unsupported/mac/info-mac   2/1
 ALL                                       ftp gopher
 Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
 also GopherMail access       info-mac                       1/1
 ALL                                       ftp
 Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
 updating from U of Tokyo     pub/info-mac                   1/1
 ALL                                       ftp email
 Internet Initiative Japan Inc., Tokyo, Japan
 email service: ("help" in message body for info)   pub/info-mac                   1/1
 ALL                                       ftp
 University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan    pub/mac/info-mac               2/1
 RECENT ALL                                ftp gopher
 Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands          mac/info-mac                   1/1
 ALL                                       ftp
 Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden
 4 users allowed during work hours (8-5 GMT), 8 other times       pub/mac/info-mac               1/1
 ALL                                       ftp gopher fsp
 Swedish University Network, Sweden
 email and web access will be added soon        mirror/info-mac                1/1
 ALL                                       ftp gopher
 SWITCH, Zurich, Switzerland    /pub/mac/info-mac              6/7
 ALL                                       ftp
 National Central University, ChungLi, Taiwan          Macintosh/info-mac             1/1
 ALL                                       ftp fsp afs
 National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan     packages/info-mac              1/1
 ALL                                       ftp email gopher web fsp ftam telnet
 Imperial College, London, UK
 email service:            pub/ftp1/info-mac              1/1
 ALL                                       ftp email
 Arizona Macintosh Users Group, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
 email service: not running yet     mirrors/info-mac               1/1
 ALL                                       ftp
 University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA   mac/infomac                    1/1
 ALL                                       ftp gopher telnet
 University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
 macbinary; telnet access for kermit and zmodem download with search functions     /pub/INFO-MAC                  1/1
 ALL                                       gopher
 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA    systems/mac/info-mac           1/1
 ALL                                       ftp gopher fsp
 Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA      [NA]                           1/1
 RECENT ALL                                email, Bitnet message/file
 Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA
 email LISTSERV@RICEVM1.RICE.EDU with "$MACARCH HELP" in body for help info           archive/systems/mac/info-mac   1/1
 ALL (except: card grf snd)                ftp
 UUNET Technologies, Falls Church, Virginia, USA

HyperCard 2.2: The Great Becomes Greater

by Matt Neuburg --

[Note: this review was greatly improved thanks to corrections and insights from Kevin Calhoun, HyperCard 2.2 team leader. Other sources: Danny Goodman, "The Complete HyperCard 2.0 Handbook;" Doug Clapp (ed.), "The Macintosh Reader;" Frank Rose, "West of Eden."]

HyperCard 2.2 is here! HyperCard was what chiefly convinced me to buy my first Mac; I still regard it as the neatest, most useful, most generous program ever conceived. Generous because it was originally given away free (no more, alas!); generous because it lets you program the Mac yourself, easily and powerfully.

HyperCard History -- HyperCard came to life in 1987 as a brainchild of Bill Atkinson. If you love the Mac, you should worship Bill Atkinson. Anyhow, I do. Apple Employee #31 (from 1978), he pushed for Apple Pascal (I loved it), then for Steve Jobs's famous visit to Xerox PARC (which inspired the Mac); he solved the problem of "regions" (thus creating QuickDraw), designed and wrote MacPaint (which helped define the Mac), and was made an Apple Fellow.

As with everything that goes on at Apple, there's a secret history of HyperCard's evolution that may never be told; certainly I don't know it, but must be content with hints and myths which have themselves become part of its mystique. It seems that Apple originally wanted to promulgate MacBasic to let ordinary folks program the Mac, as Microsoft Basic had for the Apple II, but Bill Gates balked. Meanwhile Atkinson had been working on HyperCard (then called WildCard), built around four elements:

This fourth element, still residually present (e.g., in the LinkTo button of the Button Info dialog), was subsequently expanded into an easy programming language - HyperTalk, created by Dan Winkler. Besides letting you calculate, manipulate variables, loop and test, and do all the other things you expect from a programming language, HyperTalk includes system messages reporting user actions, commands to simulate them, and functions and "properties" to obtain and alter the state of the interface and the machine. The implementation grows out of Atkinson's and Winkler's expertise in graphics and programming; but there is also a spirit of organizing and sharing information (fields and graphics, and the hypertext-ish act of clicking on a button or word to see a new card), plus a sense of giving control to the user since HyperTalk puts some of the Mac's functionality and behaviour into easy reach.

That spirit was instantly embraced by the world that received HyperCard bundled with the Mac from '87 to '91. I wonder whether any application has ever promoted so tangible an ethos, or been so transformed and enlivened by users' originality and enthusiasm. You can program the Mac; you can give the stack to others, and it's simple to use - hence educators (like me) went nuts about it. You acquire a stack someone else has written: you look inside it, see what makes it tick, modify it. Plus, HyperCard is extensible: you can attach XCMDs and XFCNs to extend its functionality, and people who could program the Mac's guts in "real" languages like Pascal and C distributed numerous XCMDs and XFCNs over the nets for all to enjoy. Many XCMDs were so useful that their functions were incorporated into later versions of HyperCard.

But according to legend, HyperCard spirit has not been universally understood at Apple. There is a tale of how Atkinson threatened to give HyperCard away himself if Apple wouldn't bundle it. There are stories of Chris Espinosa and John Sculley having to push for its original release. Perhaps there was resistance to the idea of giving away for free an application that essentially let users write their own applications; certainly there was enough fear that the idea of "programming" would repel users that Apple gave it the euphemistic name "scripting." Fortunately, as Atkinson bowed out of the scene, others who shared the vision remained and new ones, notably Kevin Calhoun, came on board, and HyperCard 2.0 and 2.1, in '90 and '91, were gems. After 2.1, though, apparently came a terrible period where HyperCard went to Claris and nearly died, then came back to Apple where it remained endangered.

Happily, HyperCard has survived to become 2.2, thanks in part, I presume, to AppleScript, which has been incorporated into it. To read the press release gobbledygook, you'd think corporate Apple still doesn't grasp just what HyperCard is; it's billed as an "application development platform" letting you create "customized software solutions," an "optimal choice for commercial solution providers." The HyperCard heart, though, beats healthy as ever; its evolution has been no mean spiritual and technical feat, and users have much to be grateful for.

Improvements and Enhancements -- Version 2.2's improvements over 2.1 are many - mostly small tweaks to remove annoying shortcomings. 2.2 has nicer report printing; movable modal dialogs; Select All works in the Message box ; many limits (number of open windows, number of open stacks) are raised or removed. Sorting and finding are more powerful; date format conversion is better; doMenu can take modifier keys; and "there is" can check for disks, applications, documents, and card pictures. System messages, properties, and functions have been added to give handlers important, previously unavailable information: whether the menubar is showing, what the user is doing to the card window, where we're going in leaving this stack. There is better menuItem info, more convenient reference syntax. WorldScript is supported. At last you can determine the layering order of fields and buttons via a new property, "the partNumber." Clearly the HyperCard team listens to users and are serious users themselves.

More major changes make it easier to conform to the Mac Thought Police style. Radio buttons now automatically work in sets. Buttons can be disabled, and can be in standard Mac style. Simple pop-up buttons are now a standard feature, with an interesting by-product that a button can now be a container. Fields can more easily act like scrolling lists. Objects can be double-clicked.

Finally, a stack can now be saved as an application! The resulting application is essentially HyperCard itself (it's huge, and no faster than running under HyperCard), but it works, even if you "start using" or "go to" other stacks, and sure beats the hated HyperCard Player.

QuickTime -- HyperCard 2.2 supports QuickTime via the Movie XCMD and the MovieInfo XFCN. The Movie XCMD puts up a movie window, in any of several styles, with or without a controller; you can manipulate the movie from a handler, or let the user do it with the controller. Many features of the movie can be manipulated, with a number of valuable messages and a callback feature. A utility stack installs the XCMD for you and simplifies setting up a movie window.

Color -- HyperCard 2.0 introduced color "picture" windows, and you could click in them, but they weren't true cards; and true cards (with buttons, fields, graphics) were strictly black and white. Integrated color was a much hoped-for feature that Claris was reportedly working on for its abortive 2.5 version, but it was found to be too cumbersome. Now 2.2 provides a compromise, with a colorizing XCMD and a utility stack to ease the process of adding color.

You can color buttons and fields and add colored rectangular areas to cards; select or create the object, and click on a color. Each object has a solid color and can have a beveled edge of adjustable thickness. You can also display full color PICTs as part of the card. You dictate the layering order of the color items, and you can use over 25 transition effects as you apply color. The utility stack installs the XCMD, and modifies your handlers and gives your stack a database of permanently colored objects, so that color automatically appears. Color seems part of the card: moving the card or switching stacks presents no problems or major delay (unlike earlier third-party colorizers). You can also control the XCMD yourself, so that color objects can change in interesting ways as part of a handler: a button could suddenly become colored, a rectangular region of the card could change colors with a transition effect, and so on.

I have seen this system criticized on the nets as a kludge, but I find it ingenious. However, I was at first overwhelmed by the spectacular appearance of the Color Tools stack, and thought, "Wow, colored buttons and fields look like this?!?" But then I found that the stack's effects are achieved almost entirely with PICTs. If you want great looking objects you'll need to draw them yourself with a graphics application.

Inter-Application Communications -- The most sweeping change in HyperCard 2.2 lies in communicating with other programs. HyperCard has long been a leader here; even before MultiFinder, you could use HyperCard to launch another application, and return when it quit. Basic support for Apple events arrived in 2.1; HyperCard could easily send and respond to the required suite plus doScript and evaluateExpression, and could be made to dissect and reply to any Apple event.

Now, however, HyperCard accepts some 150 different events, operating on 17 kinds of objects and their properties; it is thus scriptable, and you can control HyperCard from AppleScript or any other Apple event-sending mechanism. HyperCard can itself send messages via any OSA (Open Scripting Architecture) system-level scripting mechanism you have installed, like AppleScript, Frontier, or QuicKeys. A statement in a script, or a multiple statements in a container, can be sent into the system in any of these languages via the "do" command. What's more, the entire script of any object can be written in one of those other scripting languages. If the language is QuicKeys, which is not message-oriented, you can launch it with a new "run" message. If the language is AppleScript, messages can be passed directly between it and HyperTalk.

Much of the value of this new power lies in the future. AppleScript can't yet drive every application, though StuffIt, WordPerfect, FileMaker Pro, Excel, and others are on board already. The Finder isn't directly scriptable, although several hacks work around this, and a scriptable Finder is now shipping to developers. But QuicKeys can type and push buttons in just about any application, and I've already automated several drudge activities by having HyperCard do the looping and variable-setting and calling QuicKeys to drive the other application.

The move to OSA support is partly of symbolic significance, confirming (I hope) Apple's commitment to AppleScript and to HyperCard itself. But OSA support is also of great practical value; its marriage to HyperCard gives AppleScript access to all HyperCard's capabilities and significantly extends HyperCard's reach.

Bugs and Shortcomings -- Apple fixed some bugs and serious misbehaviours, including the infamous "go first marked card" bug. Not everyone's wish list will be met, though. There's still no ControlKey function, and you still can't script the polygon tool. HyperCard's idle-time tasks, such as resetting the ItemDelimiter, still won't happen if a new message is pending (e.g. you clicked a button while the previous handler was running), and sending "idle" yourself is not a workaround.

Documentation -- The documentation (manuals and some stacks) is good, but not uniformly so. HyperCard is hard to describe or teach, and though the manuals do a remarkably fine job of both at describing and teaching and the included stacks are superb as models, the manuals have errors, ranging from simple misprints and misstated syntax rules to howlers like a demo script for a Replace function that breaks if the replace-text contains the find-text. There are also odd arrangement choices and some serious omissions. Properties of palettes and external windows are not included in the Properties chapter. KeyDown and CommandKeyDown are not listed among the system messages sent to a field, and we are nowhere informed that TabKey, ReturnKey, EnterKey, FunctionKey, ArrowKey, and ControlKey (though not CommandKeyDown) messages are preceded by KeyDown (indeed, the manual wrongly denies that this is so). The Choose message is not documented in the manuals; nor is the important new "run" message. Many basic arrow-key navigation shortcuts are documented only deep in a Help stack. The "dynamic path" is incorrectly explained in the HT Reference stack. The new "copy template" command is practically undocumented. Such shortcomings in the official documentation seem somewhat outrageous.

Conclusions -- HyperCard may not be free any more, but it's still a good deal. The propaganda says that the price will be $249 (or upgrade from registered 2.0/2.1 for $89), but $139 for a limited (unspecified) time; I ordered direct from APDA via email to <> and paid $99. The package includes the HyperCard application; two manuals; over two dozen stacks of documentation and utilities; the XCMDs for QuickTime and color; AppleScript 1.1 and the rest of the "Run Time" Kit; plus ADDmotion II from Motion Works, an application and XCMDs for multimedia in HyperCard. My recommendation: run, don't walk.


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