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The European Union has passed the Copyright in the Digital Single Market Directive, with its controversial Articles 11 and 13 (see “New EU Copyright Regulations Threaten the Internet,” 25 June 2018 and “EFF: Europe’s Copyright Directive Worse Than Imagined,” 15 February 2019). According to the Wikimedia Foundation, Article 11 will require licenses for nearly all online uses of news content, and Article 13 will impose liability on platforms for copyright-infringing content uploaded by users unless they meet a number of stringent requirements. In a statement, YouTube said the final version was an improvement, but the Electronic Frontier Foundation is more alarmed than ever. The EU insists the rules are to protect artists, while critics say they’re a crackdown on user-generated content. Member nations have several years to write the Copyright Directive into their own laws, and they’re sure to be challenged in court.